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in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Edited by AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publication date 2021-05-10
This chapter analyses the processes of bureaucratization and self-registration produced by the Koglweogo self-defence groups. It shows how they reappropriate institutional norms and practices in order to organize and legitimate their law enforcement activities. The production of their own means of identification, particularly membership cards, allows them to define and create a moral identity and thus to exclude ‘bad’ citizens from social space. It further serves as a means of seeking the state's recognition and legal validation.
in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Edited by AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publication date 2021-05-10
AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book explores scope to refine, and sometimes considerably qualify, certain points of this interpretation. It explains that personal identity booklets began to be issued in conjunction with the census in 1930. The book argues that the bureaucratic mobilization for the ethnic registration of Rwandans began immediately after independence, with major political effects. It describes the post-war identification reforms undertaken by the Ouattara regime certainly helped to deradicalize this ideological opposition under a technicist veneer, but at the price of a general amnesty for documentary fraud that amounted to state institutionalization of identity falsification. The book focuses on the use of ethnic identity cards in the violent history of Rwanda, and the preparation and conduct of the 1994 genocide.
in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Edited by AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publication date 2021-05-10
How are the practices for verifying the identity of immigrant learners informed by the devices on which school staff rely? An analysis of the materiality and utilization of these devices in low-income Johannesburg high schools reveals that they form a mixed regime of identification in which documentary verification predominates and is linked with interpersonal certification and digital authentication. This mixed regime fosters the exclusion of immigrant learners, as it supports the joint enforcement of migration control in schools by the Department of Basic Education and the Department of Home Affairs. Digitalization reinforces paper barriers to schooling in the form of identification documentation requirements by limiting school staff's ability to circumvent them, in contexts marked by precarity and ordinary xenophobia.
in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Edited by AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publication date 2021-05-10
ROBERTSON Rachel
In October 1947 in Uganda, the British colonial administration opened local consultations about the introduction of an ‘identity card for Africans.’ The consultation process concluded barely two months later, putting a definitive end to the project. Through a thorough examination of Ugandan and British archives and the East African press of the time, this article traces the failure of this project. It shows how, despite different political and economic contexts, the Ugandan process was impacted by the debates about the much-detested Kenyan kipande. This case study shows the intra-imperial circulation of identification schemes, personnel, and techniques as well as the common attempt to impose a moral order of the identity card. It also highlights the limits and resistance of a regionalized elite to the export of a model of political, social, and economic control.
in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Edited by AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publication date 2021-05-10
OWACHI Gerald
SNOW William
Since 2014 in Uganda, 15,000 people defined or self-defined as Maragoli have not obtained a biometric identity card. Having migrated from Kenya in the 1950s, the Maragoli were not included on the constitutional list of so-called indigenous groups. Their quest for citizenship has prompted a ‘self-documentation’ effort, involving the production of an origin narrative, a self-census, the collection of historical archives, and booklets of official correspondence, to document their request for recognition of indigenousness. This contribution examines how identificatory policies in a context of bureaucratization and biometrization of legal identities have had a profound impact on the social fabric, on practices, and on representations of the collective identity, of self and citizenship. Paradoxically, through the materialization of identity technology, people are counted, identified, and categorized, but also negotiate their identity.
Edited by AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publication date 2021-05-10 Collection Routledge Contemporary Africa
In the context of a global biometric turn, this book investigates processes of legal identification in Africa ‘from below,’ asking what this means for the relationship between citizens and the state. Almost half of the population of the African continent is thought to lack a legal identity, and many states see biometric technology as a reliable and efficient solution to the problem. However, this book shows that biometrics, far from securing identities and avoiding fraud or political distrust, can even participate in reinforcing exclusion and polarizing debates on citizenship and national belonging. It highlights the social and political embedding of legal identities and the resilience of the documentary state. Drawing on empirical research conducted across 14 countries, the book documents the processes, practices, and meanings of legal identification in Africa from the 1950s right up to the biometric boom. Beyond the classic opposition between surveillance and recognition, it demonstrates how analysing the social uses of IDs and tools of identification can give a fresh account of the state at work, the practices of citizenship, and the role of bureaucracy in the writing of the self in African societies. This book will be of an important reference for students and scholars of African studies, politics, human security, and anthropology and the sociology of the state.
in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Edited by AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publication date 2021-05-10
CUTOLO Armando
KOUYATE Souleymane
SNOW William
In Côte d'Ivoire, documentary falsification encompasses a wide variety of practices and situations, including fake birth certificates, locally known as ‘René Cailliés.’ Since the early 2000s, successive governments have tried to put things in order through civil registration reforms. Among many measures the Ouattara government has taken to fix this issue since the war, the adoption of a personal biometric identification number was presented as the key to a modernity free from the relics of corruption and nationality fraud. Yet this reform did not eliminate the logic of social intermediation and brokerage (margouillats). Aware of the strength of this stipendiary chain of production of fake documents, President Ouattara passed a new law granting amnesty to all the René Cailliés. In an irony of history, the government paradoxically legalized informality and forgery to implement its biometric project for modernizing the legal identity system.
in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Edited by AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publication date 2021-05-10
For 40 years, Nigeria has separated its citizens into two categories, ‘indigenes’ and ‘non-indigenes.’ Indigene citizens can trace their genealogical roots back to a community in a specific locality. All local governments issue certificates of indigene to certify this origin, but the techniques of identification and the definition of the term indigene vary radically from one local government to another. This chapter explores the relationship between local government officers, the chiefs working for them, and users seeking a certificate in Oyo State and Plateau State. This bureaucratic relationship is a form of ordinary state-citizen interaction, yet it redefines an exclusive local citizenship. The chapter seeks to understand how applicants engage with these procedures, how ancestral origins are investigated, and the conditions in which issuing certificates of indigene can become a controversial political issue.
in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Edited by AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publication date 2021-05-10
EDWARDS Jessica
This contribution uses the private archives of Aicha, an Ivorian former combatant, to retrace part of her life during and after the Ivorian crisis. Her papers, mainly cards issued by institutions and actors involved in the crisis and its management (rebel forces, Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration programmes, and associations of ex-combatants), highlight the voluntary engagement of women in armed groups, bringing them back into the national narrative of activism and conflict. Her papers also inform us more broadly about the variety of bodies producing documents and shed light on the dissemination of bureaucratic reason among them. As such, this chapter analyses the place and role played by papers at different periods and among different actors in a society marked by a decade of ‘war of identification and for papers.’
Si la feria de Séville s’inscrit dans une tradition vivace en Espagne de festivités populaires, elle s’en distingue nettement par son caractère très fermé. Organisée autour de casetas, petites maisons de toile aux décors traditionnels, la fête se déroule dans ces espaces qui sont très majoritairement privés (seules 1,7% des 1052 casetas sont ouvertes au public). Lieu de l’entre-soi social par excellence, de l’entretien (parfois sur plusieurs générations) d’un capital social familial, la feria questionne la société démocratique et donne lieu à des débats et controverses, notamment sur sa prise en charge municipale. Son modèle de fête à guichets fermés génère aussi un phénomène de « contre-feria », qui s’est notamment développé au moment de la transition démocratique autour d’organisations politiques d’opposition. Proposer une histoire de la feria qui morcelle le collectif, qui le désenchante et le réinscrive dans les trajectoires sociales et politiques des individus et des groupes qui y participent permet de faire de la feria, objet emblématique des chroniques locales et des brochures touristiques, un objet de sciences sociales depuis lequel s’étudient réseaux sociaux et politiques.
in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Edited by AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publication date 2021-05-10
AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine
CUTOLO Armando
ROBERTSON Rachel
This chapter examines the boom in new technologies for identifying people that African societies are experiencing and discusses their political effects. Is biometrics radically changing the practices of power and citizenship? Does it entail a new relationship between individuals and the state? Based on empirical studies conducted in several countries and on the academic literature, this contribution questions the utopias of biometric ‘emergence’ and the democratic illusion of the universalization of rights through digital technology. It shows that the documentary state as it works in practice is not supplanted by the biometric state and that new technologies do not prevent either identity fraud or political distrust—at times, they even accentuate the logic of civic exclusion. The chapter thus underlines the profound social embedding of biometric reforms and the undeniable ability of social actors to adapt to new technologies.
in The Historical Expertise Publication date 2021-05-06
MAJSOVA Natalija
ANASTASOVA Senka
Having faced a veto by Bulgaria in its EU accession process for the third time, North Macedonia finds itself at the crossroads of various power interplays that are strongly embedded in memory politics. University Professor Dr. Senka Anastasova theorizes relations between history, historiography and narrative identities, and their ramifications in the context of memory politics. Specifically, she analyzes the memoryscape of North Macedonia, contextualizing the external pressures to North Macedonia’s EU accession process, implemented by EU member states Greece and Bulgaria. Reflecting on the importance of the socialist Yugoslav heritage of gender politics and Yugonostalgia, Anastasova outlines the numerous memory strategies used by the Macedonian political elites. In doing so, she accounts for the convergences and divergences between the two largest (Macedonian and Albanian) communities of North Macedonia. Her analysis of the project Skopje 2014, just one of the revisionist projects of the political elites, gives us an insight into the complicated memory struggles within and outside of North Macedonia.
Excédés par le présumé laxisme des tribunaux, les justiciers autoproclamés s'évertuent à punir par eux-mêmes les fauteurs de trouble. Violant la loi pour maintenir l'ordre, ils s'improvisent détectives, juges et bourreaux. Adeptes du lynchage et autres châtiments spectaculaires, ils trouvent un nouveau public sur les réseaux sociaux. Des groupes d'autodéfense du Far West aux chasseurs de pédophiles en Russie contemporaine, les justiciers hors-la-loi sont typiquement des hommes blancs, réactionnaires et xénophobes. Toutefois, mouvements révolutionnaires et défenseurs des dominés ne s'interdisent pas de manier, à leur tour, le fouet et le feu. L'auto-justice compte en outre de fervents zélateurs dans les services répressifs. Et quand policiers et paramilitaires s'affranchissent du cadre légal pour nettoyer la société, ils précipitent l'avènement de l'État justicier.
in The Historical Expertise Publication date 2021-05-06
MAJSOVA Natalija
HORVATINČIĆ Sanja
As the Republic of Croatia is considered today to be the stronghold of anti-Yugoslav sentiments among (post)Yugoslav states, we look into the complexities and nuances of memory politics in this newest EU member state. Mainstream narratives are embedded in the national reconciliation policies and anti-communism emanating from Franjo Tudjman’s politics in the 1990s and the Homeland war. Through historical revisionism of World War Two and the role of Ustasha movement, they profoundly influence Croatian approaches to socialist heritage. Dr Sanja Horvatinčić further elucidates the key mnemonic actors in Croatia and how the destruction and the dereliction of the monuments from the socialist Yugoslavia have been an important element in Croatian nation-building, encouraged by “anti-totalitarian” European memory activism.
Publication date 2021-05-06 Collection IJURR Studies in Urban and Social Change Book Series
The cities of South Africa and Nigeria are reputed to be dangerous, teeming with slums, and dominated by the informal economy but we know little about how people are divided up, categorised and policed. Colonial governments assigned rights and punishments, banned categories considered problematic (delinquents, migrants, single women, street vendors) and give non-state organisations the power to police low-income neighbourhoods. Within this enduring legacy, a tangle of petty arrangements has developed to circumvent exclusion to public places and government offices. In this unpredictable urban reality – which has eluded all planning – individuals and social groups have changed areas of public action through exclusion, violence and negotiation. In combining historical and ethnographic methods, Classify, Exclude, Police explores the effects and limits of public action, and questions the possibility of comparison between cities often perceived as incommensurable. Focusing on state formation, urbanization, and daily lives, Laurent Fourchard addresses debates and controversies in comparative urban studies, history, political science, and urban anthropology. The book provides a systematic, comparative approach to the practices, processes, arrangements used to create boundaries, direct violence, and produce social, racial, gender, and generational differences.
in Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy Edited by SELLERS Mortimer, KIRSTE Stephan Publication date 2021-05-06
Karl Renner (1870–1950) is at once an imaginative scholar of multinationality and federalism, a pragmatic Austro–Marxist politician, a German nationalist nostalgic of the dual–monarchy, a legal relativist, and a proponent of economic democracy. Socialist, monarchist, and nationalist: it is difficult indeed to find a common denominator that would do justice to his long and complex career. Editor of the famous journal Der Kampf (the Austrian Social–Democrat twin of Kautsky’s Die Neue Zeit), negotiator at the Treaty of Saint–Germain (1918), he served in several capacities. First chancellor of the First Republic after WW2 (1918–1920), he managed to play Stalin when he became first president of the Second Republic after WW2 (1945–1950) and save Austria from becoming a satellite of the Soviet Union. He campaigned against Engelbert Dollfuss’ Austro-Fascism in the 1930s but, convinced by Austria’s cultural unity with Germany, voted for the Anschluß in 1938.
in The Historical Expertise Publication date 2021-05-06
MAJSOVA Natalija
ĐUREINOVIĆ Jelena
Since the 2000s, the Republic of Serbia has been marked by a surge in revisionist memory politics. Encouraged by EU memory narratives, which equate fascism and communism, revisionist memory politics in Serbia entails a rehabilitation of the Chetnik movement. In this interview, historian Dr Jelena Đureinović debunks the myths surrounding the memory battles in the public space in Serbia and analyzes the diverging memory narratives in the country and in the wider (post)Yugoslav region. Đureinović explains how the ethnicization and revisionism of memory and history have been reflected in the newly adopted legal frameworks, judicial processes, mainstream political discourses and in the overall memory efforts of the political elites, including the Serbian Orthodox Church. While memory battles involving heterogeneous voices in Serbia remain focused on World War Two, seemingly more pertinent issues, namely, the reconciliation with the war past of the 1990s, are effectively obfuscated.
in Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies Publication date 2021-05-06
In the guestworker system deployed in the Mauritian export factories, where migrants come to work on temporary contracts, employers and their labour brokers constantly need to hire new workers. And in this permanent renewal of the workforce, recruiters express their preferences for specific nationalities of employees and their disdain for others. Through in-depth interviews conducted with both employers and labour brokers, this contribution explores the production of a ‘knowledge’ on workers, a taxonomy that attributes certain qualities to certain people in the ranking of the ‘best worker’. The article contends that racialised assumptions on work ethic are intimately combined with a logic of profit maximisation, both dimensions being mutually constitutive of taxonomies at work.
in The Historical Expertise Publication date 2021-05-06
MAJSOVA Natalija
PALMBERGER Monika
As Bosnia and Herzegovina remains a country institutionally-divided on an ethno-national basis between its three consitutuent peoples – Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs, top-down memory politics encourage these divisions. Using the still divided city of Mostar as an example, Dr. Monika Palmberger gives insight into the discursive tactics opposing hegemonic memory narratives, through a generational approach and focusing on the generation of the Last Yugoslavs, thus underlining the importance of studying the integrative potential of positive memories of the pre-war period.
Publication date 2021-05-06
BULMAN Anna
CORDES Kaitlin Y
MEHRANVAR Ladan
MERRILL Ella
Increased investment in agriculture and food systems—from both the private and public sectors—is critical to enhance food security and nutrition, reduce poverty, and adapt to climate change. To generate sustainable benefits, this investment must be responsible. What role should investment incentives play in encouraging such investment? This Guide helps to answer that question. Specifically, the Guide provides policymakers and government technical staff with guidance on how investment incentives can be used (and how they should not be used) to enhance responsible investment in agriculture and food systems. The Guide provides an overview of responsible investment in agriculture and food systems; examines common types of incentives; offers general considerations on how incentives can be used; and discusses how to plan for, design, monitor, and evaluate investment incentives for responsible investment in agriculture and food systems.