Co-auteur
  • LE GLOANNEC Anne-Marie (1)
Type de Document
  • Communication non publiée (9)
  • Article (7)
  • Compte-rendu d’ouvrage (1)
  • Mémoire universitaire (1)
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The energy sector is undergoing a ‘digital revolution’, whereby information and communication technologies (ICTs) are increasingly deployed throughout energy infrastructure, leading to the growing digitization of production, storage and consumption processes. With potentially hundreds of millions of smart meters to be installed in the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) in the coming years, ICTs make it possible to collect and analyze large amounts of complex data to optimize the whole energy system, while providing consumers with a number of customized services. Firms in the energy sector are gradually turning into massive data collectors. As a result, the energy industry is one of the sectors that has been most impacted by the requirements outlined in the EU’s new General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), launched in May 2018. On March 23rd 2018 however, and perhaps in anticipation of the GDPR, the US Congress ratified the Clarifying Lawful Overseas Use of Data Act (or Cloud Act) as part of the 2018 federal omnibus spending bill. Many of the potential benefits deriving from the GDPR, both from an economic viewpoint and from the perspective of privacy protection, risk being jeopardized by the Cloud Act and the danger of conflicting legislation. Indeed, the Cloud Act makes it lawful for US federal authorities, within the context of an investigation, to compel American technology companies, either through warrant or subpoena, to hand over data stored on their servers and data centers. This applies regardless of whether or not such data is stored on US soil or in a foreign country; the person(s) concerned are not notified and there is no possibility of oversight from judicial authorities in the country where the data is stored. The Cloud Act has a direct impact on the energy sector, because energy firms on both sides of the Atlantic have expanded their reliance on Cloud computing technologies to store the large quantity of data they are processing. Overall, the GDPR and the Cloud Act point to an escalation of the transatlantic rivalry for data protection, with major ramifications for the energy sector in the years to come.

Publié en 2018-11 Nom de la conférence Institut français des relations internationales (IFRI) - What to expect from COP24?
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The French Institute of International Relations (Ifri) invited me to participate in a conference to debate the main issues surrounding the COP24 in Poland. My panel included the French Ambassador to the UN Climate Negotiations, an EU negotiator from the Directorate-General for Climate Action at the European Commission, as well as the President of La Fabrique de la Cité (a think tank on urban studies). My presentation, based on my doctoral research, focused on how American sub-national and non-state actors are organizing themselves into national networks in defiance of the Trump administration in order to continue implementing climate policies. While US sub-national and non-state actors are making many valuable contributions to implement their climate pledges, these cannot fully compensate for Trump’s withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, which means that Obama’s former climate targets will probably not be met.

in Revue française de science politique Publié en 2018-07
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1ères lignes : La vitalité des recherches sur l’économie sociale et solidaire (ESS) ces dernières années doit sans doute beaucoup à la loi Hamon de 2014 qui, pour la première fois, a donné sa pleine reconnaissance à cette autre économie. Elle a en tout cas inspiré le présent ouvrage qui est composé pour l’essentiel des actes d’une Journée d’étude organisée en 2015 par l’Institut de la gestion publique et du développement économique, un service de formation permanente rattaché au ministère de l’Économie et des Finances et au ministère de l’Action et des Comptes publics. Ce travail participe d’un intérêt renouvelé sur les rapports entre l’ESS et le changement institutionnel, abordés à partir des enjeux politiques1, de la coconstruction2 ou de la société civile organisée3. Cette perspective s’avère particulièrement heuristique dans notre État nation marqué par la culture politique de la généralité et de la défiance vis-à-vis des corps intermédiaires.

Publié en 2018-06 Nom de la conférence Robert Schuman Foundation, Summer European Academy 2018
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Texas A&M University organizes the Summer European Academy, a Faculty-led summer study abroad program focusing on EU and European political, economic and security affairs with programs in Passau, Warsaw, Brussels, and Paris. The Robert Schuman Foundation represents the main partner for the Summer European Academy program in France. For the second year in a row, I was invited to present my publications on transatlantic relations and international climate politics at the Robert Schuman Foundation to students and professors from Texas A&M University, as well as researchers from French and European think tanks. We engaged in extensive discussion and debate about the potential for climate change to reinforce the transatlantic dialogue under a multi-actor, multi-level approach that begins at the local level. The national level, while important, can be bypassed through cooperation between cities and regions on both sides of the Atlantic. How these entities interact and implement their commitments to the Paris Agreement, through non-formal mechanisms such as ‘parallel pledges’, provides an innovative framework for more robust transatlantic cooperation.

Publié en 2018-06 Nom de la conférence European Cyber Task Force, New EU Cybersecurity Package
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I was invited to participate in a conference organized by the European Commission’s permanent representation in France to discuss the proposed new EU Cybersecurity Package. Among the people invited were members of the French and European Parliaments, officials from the EU Commission and France’s National Cybersecurity Agency (ANSSI), as well as representatives from the private sector. I contributed to the debate by discussing and answering questions about my paper written for IFRI on a comparative analysis of cybersecurity policies in the energy sector in Europe and the United States. We debated current issues in the evolution of European cybersecurity policies within the global context, including the Commission’s proposal for a new Cybersecurity Package. We also discussed the implementation of the Directive on the security of network and information systems (NIS), as well as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

Publié en 2018-06 Nom de la conférence Robert Schuman Foundation, Summer European Academy 2018
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Texas A&M University organizes the Summer European Academy, a Faculty-led Summer Study Abroad Program focusing on EU and European political, economic and security affairs with programs in Passau (Germany), Warsaw (Poland), Brussels (Belgium), and Paris (France). The Robert Schuman Foundation represents the main partner for the Summer European Academy program in France. For the second year in a row, I was invited to present my publications on transatlantic relations and international climate politics at the Robert Schuman Foundation to students and professors from Texas A&M University, as well as researchers from French and European think tanks. We engaged in extensive discussion and debate about the potential for climate change to reinforce the transatlantic dialogue under a multi-actor, multi-level approach that begins at the local level. The national level, while important, can be bypassed through cooperation between cities and regions on both sides of the Atlantic. How these entities interact and implement their commitments to the Paris Agreement, through non-formal mechanisms such as ‘parallel pledges’, provides an innovative framework for more robust transatlantic cooperation.

Publié en 2018-06 Nom de la conférence European Cyber Task Force
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The European Commission’s permanent representation in France invited me to participate in a conference to discuss the proposed new EU Cybersecurity Package. Among the people invited were members of the French and European Parliaments, officials from the EU Commission and France’s National Cybersecurity Agency (ANSSI), as well as representatives from the private sector. I was able to contribute to the debate thanks to my paper written for IFRI on a comparative analysis of cybersecurity policies in the energy sector in Europe and the United States. We debated current issues in the evolution of European cybersecurity policies within the global context, including the Commission’s proposal for a new Cybersecurity Package. We also discussed the implementation of the Directive on the security of network and information systems (NIS), as well as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

L’accélération de la numérisation des infrastructures énergétiques apporte de nombreux bénéfices économiques, notamment en termes de rationalisation de la consommation d’énergie avec des gains d’efficacité. Néanmoins, cela a aussi pour conséquence d’augmenter les risques de cyberattaques, où des logiciels malveillants prennent avantage de la digitalisation croissante des équipements. Les récentes cyberattaques qui ont visé les infrastructures critiques ukrainiennes soulignent que la menace est réelle et grandissante. La vulnérabilité n’est pas cantonnée aux infrastructures situées dans l’Union européenne ou aux États-Unis : certaines attaques dont a été victime l’Ukraine se sont propagées à de nombreuses entreprises occidentales notamment à travers leurs filiales, soulignant le danger de contagion par le biais de logiciels malveillants. Au cours des dernières années, l’UE et les États-Unis ont progressivement adopté une série de mesures et de réglementations pour protéger les infrastructures énergétiques face au risque cyber. Cependant, les approches américaines et européennes présentent de nombreuses différences. En effet, les États-Unis ont privilégié une stratégie de sécurité en profondeur avec des réglementations strictes et détaillées dans des secteurs précis, appliquées par des institutions aux pouvoirs coercitifs. Par contraste, l’UE a adopté une stratégie plus souple et exhaustive, couvrant un large éventail de domaines et laissant une marge de manœuvre importante aux États membres dans la mise en application des normes. Toutefois, ces approches sont aussi potentiellement complémentaires, dans la mesure où les forces du système américain peuvent servir de modèle pour améliorer certaines faiblesses dans l’approche européenne, et réciproquement, puisque les États-Unis pourraient aussi tirer un certain nombre d’enseignements de l’UE. En effet, le modèle américain est en avance sur l’UE au niveau du développement de normes précises et détaillées pour la cybersécurité, ainsi que dans la mise en application de ces normes. Seule une poignée d’États européens, dont la France, ont un niveau de normes équivalent et l’UE souffre de manquements et de faiblesses tant à l’échelle communautaire que nationale. Néanmoins, les États-Unis peuvent apprendre de l’UE concernant la protection de la vie privée et des données à caractère personnel, la cybersécurité appliquée aux technologies bas-carbone, ainsi que la protection des réseaux de distribution électrique. De plus, la Californie et la France présentent un certain nombre de spécificités pertinentes en la matière. C’est pourquoi il est essentiel de renforcer la coopération transatlantique afin de permettre à l’UE et aux États-Unis d’apprendre chacun du modèle de l’autre. Cela pourrait avoir lieu à travers différentes plateformes, ce qui inclurait un renforcement de la collaboration bilatérale entre les gouvernements, ainsi qu’une meilleure coopération au sein de structures multilatérales telles que l’OTAN et le G7, et finalement au niveau des partenariats public-privé. L’objectif serait de développer l’harmonisation des normes entre l’UE et les États-Unis afin de pouvoir progressivement mettre en place des standards transatlantiques communs en matière de cybersécurité. Il est important de noter que le président Trump a démontré un intérêt pour les questions liées à la cybersécurité en renforçant la politique de son prédécesseur en la matière. Par conséquent, malgré les divergences actuelles entre l’UE et les États-Unis sur de nombreux sujets, la cybersécurité représente un domaine où il existe une réelle opportunité pour approfondir la coopération transatlantique dans les années à venir. Les standards transatlantiques communs pourraient ensuite devenir des normes internationales de cybersécurité rigoureuses, permettant de réduire les risques de propagation.

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Within Europe and around the world, a populist upsurge is threatening the liberal international order. Following the Brexit referendum and Donald Trump’s election as US President, multilateral cooperation appears to be in jeopardy and transatlantic relations have reached a historic low point. Trump’s nationalist ideology has led him to embrace an insular foreign policy under the slogan ‘America first’, criticizing key allies in Europe for taking advantage of the United States. Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement on climate change represents a significant challenge to transatlantic relations, given Europe’s strong commitment to the accord and to environmental policy more generally. It is representative of the erosion in international cooperation and the breakdown of entrenched alliances, highlighting current tensions in the transatlantic dialogue. Trump’s announcement has opened a breach in the global climate regime, given that the US is the second largest greenhouse gas emitter and had pledged a substantial amount of funding to support implementation of the Paris Agreement. Nonetheless, the rest of the international community has decided to continue without the US federal government. This was made clear during the 2017 G20 summit in Hamburg when all parties confirmed their commitment to the Paris Agreement. Despite the resurgence of nationalism that feeds on opposition to multilateralism, international cooperation remains more vital than ever to tackle genuinely global challenges such as climate change. Indeed, even within the US, a broad coalition involving cities, states, the private sector and civil society has vowed to continue implementing American climate pledges under the Paris Agreement regardless of the Trump administration. Hence, this paper aims to examine the potential for climate change to strengthen the transatlantic dialogue under a multi-actor, multi-level governance approach. The legal structure of the Paris Agreement allows for a flexible framework on climate change. The national level, while important, can be bypassed through cooperation between cities, states, businesses and civil society groups (including NGOs and universities) on both sides of the Atlantic. How these instances interact and implement their commitments to the Paris Agreement, through non-formal mechanisms such as ‘parallel pledges’, provides an innovative legal framework for more robust transatlantic dialogue and cooperation.

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The Transatlantic Policy Symposium (TAPS) is an annual conference organized and run by graduate students of the Center for German and European Studies (School of Foreign Service) at Georgetown University. It brings together academics, students, and professionals from around the world to discuss pressing issues at the heart of the transatlantic relationship. TAPS was born in 1996 from a desire to connect future transatlantic leaders and generate ideas aiming to solve problems and increase our resilience. Through two decades of evolution, the conference has gained a social media presence, transitioned from presentation to panel-based, and widened its appeal to the general policy community. I applied and was invited to participate in the 22nd session of the TAPS in February 2018 ("Does the Waning of America’s Global Leadership Spell the Weakening of the Transatlantic Partnership?"). I presented my ongoing doctoral research on multi-level governance and transatlantic cooperation on climate change policy, and answered questions from transatlantic experts and students.

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