Co-auteur
  • ASSIRELLI Giulia (8)
  • ARGENTIN Gianluca (5)
  • ABBIATI Giovanni Maria (5)
  • SCHIZZEROTTO Antonio (4)
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Type de Document
  • Article (17)
  • Working paper (7)
  • Rapport (3)
  • Contribution à un site web (3)
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Jusqu’à quel point le Covid-19 perturbe-t-il notre vie de tous les jours ? Comment la population française vit-elle le confinement ? Dans quelles mesures les inégalités sociales sont-elles exacerbées et la cohésion sociale menacée ? Le projet CoCo apporte des éléments de réponse à ces questions d’actualité en comparant les conditions de vie en France avant et après le blocage. Il s’agit du deuxième rapport préliminaire de la série que nous publierons dans les prochaines semaines. Nous analysons ici la façon dont la société française a fait face à ce premier mois de confinement, notamment en ce qui concerne les préoccupations sur l’état de l’économie, la santé et le bien-être autodéclarés, et enfin l’enseignement à la maison.

How disruptive is COVID-19 to everyday life? How is the French population experiencing the lockdown? Is it magnifying inequalities and affecting social cohesion? The CoCo project sheds light on these pressing questions by comparing living conditions in France before, during, and after the lockdown. This is the second of a series of research briefs that we will publish in the forthcoming weeks. In this brief, we explore how French society has coped with the first month of the lockdown, particularly with the economy, self-reported health and well-being, and homeschooling.

Publié en 2019-12 Collection OSC Papers : 2019-3
BARG Katherin
ICHOU Mathieu
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This work examines the validity of the two main assumptions of relative risk-aversion models of educational inequality. We compare the Breen-Goldthorpe (BG) and the Breen-Yaish (BY) models in terms of their assumptions about status maintenance motives and beliefs about the occupational risks associated with educational decisions. Concerning the first assumption, our contribution is threefold. First, we criticise the assumption of the BG model that families aim only at avoiding downward mobility and are insensitive to the prospects of upward mobility. We argue that the loss-aversion assumption proposed by BY is a more realistic formulation of status-maintenance motives. Second, we propose and implement a novel empirical approach to assess the validity of the loss-aversion assumption. Third, we present empirical results based on a sample of families of lower secondary school leavers indicating that families are sensitive to the prospects of both upward and downward mobility, and that the loss-aversion hypothesis of BY is empirically supported. As regards the risky choice assumption, we argue that families may not believe that more ambitious educational options entail occupational risks relative to less ambitious ones. We present empirical evidence indicating that, in France, the academic path is not perceived as a risky option. We conclude that, if the restrictive assumptions of the BG model are removed, relative-risk aversion needs not to drive educational inequalities.

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Cette recherche sur les jardins d’enfants « Paris Habitat », financée par la ville de Paris, se fixe trois objectifs principaux : caractériser le(s) modèle(s) pédagogique(s) mis en oeuvre dans ces structures (dimensions cognitives, comportementales, scolaires, organisationnelles) et son positionnement par rapport au modèle classique de l’école maternelle, avec un accent particulier mis sur les enfants en situation de handicap ; Saisir les motifs – institutionnels, résidentiels, familiaux – qui conduisent les parents de différents milieux sociaux à « choisir » ce type de structure ; Évaluer l’impact d’un accueil dans ces jardins d’enfant sur les trajectoires sociales et scolaires des enfants, comparativement à ceux ayant fréquenté l’école maternelle et à ceux qui n’ont pas été scolarisés auparavant. Ce rapport comprend 2 volets réalisés le premier (approche qualitative) en 2018 et le second (étude quantitative) en 2019.

Publié en 2019-12 Collection Sciences Po LIEPP Working Paper : 98
CHAMBOULEYRON Emilio
VONNAK Reka
ASSIRELLI Giulia
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Over the past two decades, a growing number of randomised controlled trials have assessed the impact on children's language skills of interventions encouraging parents to read books to their children. We present the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of 30 such interventions. Results indicate that they are often ineffective, and that only one specific methodology (dialogic reading), displays systematically positive impacts. Moreover, effective interventions display weaker impacts on low-socioeconomic groups, thus raising equity issues, and on younger children. Our systematic analysis of the research designs of these studies points at three major weaknesses. First, only short-term outcomes are measured, most often within six months after the conclusion of the intervention, and even within such a narrow time window, we find indications that treatment impacts fade out. A second limitation concerns the limited range of outcomes measured (receptive or expressive vocabulary). Finally these studies display low external validity (ad hoc sampling, small sample sizes, lack of multi-site experiments, scant evidence outside Anglo-saxon countries).

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È difficile contenere l’entusiasmo per il saggio Salvare l’università italiana (Bologna, il Mulino, 2017) di G. Capano, M. Regini e M. Turri. Un lavoro che condensa i risultati di ricerche pluridecennali sui sistemi d’istruzione terziaria condotte da tre dei massimi esperti italiani del tema in un volume snello, caratterizzato da uno stile asciutto, chiaro e conciso. Non capita spesso di leggere saggi così limpidi ed efficaci. Un volume quindi realmente accessibile a un pubblico di non esperti, ricco di suggerimenti pratici per i decisori politici a ogni livello, ma anche di dati e stimolanti riflessioni per chi si occupa di questi temi da una prospettiva scientifica o semplicemente lavora nelle università e si trova a riflettere sul loro funzionamento. Peraltro, chi fosse interessato a un taglio più strettamente di ricerca, potrà consultare il saggio degli stessi autori Changing governance in universities- Italian Higher Education in Comparative Perspective (Palgrave, 2016), interessante perché offre un’analisi storicocomparativa più approfondita delle trasformazioni dell’università italiana, collegandola a un modello teorico sistematico ed integrandola con alcuni recenti dati di ricerca originali sulla governance delle università italiane ed europee.

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Shared book reading between parents and children is often regarded as a significant mediator of social inequalities in early skill development processes. We argue that socially biased gaps between parents in access to information about the benefits of this activity for school success contribute to inequalities between children in access to this activity and in their language development. We test this hypothesis with a large-scale field experiment assessing the causal impact of an information intervention targeting parents of pre-schoolers on both the frequency of shared book reading and the receptive vocabulary of children. Results indicate that low-educated parents are more reactive to this information intervention, with significant effects on the language development of their children. We conclude that information barriers on the potential of informal learning activities at home contribute to social inequalities in early childhood, and that removing these barriers is a cost-effective way to reduce these inequalities.

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Gender segregation in higher education (GSHE) is recognized as a key factor to explain the persistence of gender inequalities in the labor market despite the reversal of gender gap in educational attainment. Women are systematically overrepresented in fields of study, such as social sciences and the humanities, which offer relatively poor labor market prospects; at the same time, they are underrepresented in fields that perform above the average, as engineering and ICT. Several explanations for GSHE have been proposed in the literature, but their explanatory power has to be assessed yet. Using a rich longitudinal dataset on a recent cohort of Italian upper secondary school leavers, in this paper we jointly test seven potential mechanisms for GSHE. Our results show that rational choice explanations—such as skill-based explanations and gender differences in career preferences—fail to account for GSHE. On the contrary, expressive motivations related to preferences for school subjects and for specific occupations are found to mediate to a significant extent GSHE. However, our most important result concerns the key role of curricular track choice at upper secondary level which, alone, mediates two third of the gender difference in access to the humanities and social sciences and one third of the gender difference in access to engineering and ICT.

Shared book reading between parents and children is often regarded as a significant mediator of social inequalities in early skill development processes. We argue that socially biased gaps between parents in access to information about the benefits of this activity for school success contribute to inequalities between children in access to this activity and in their language development. We test this hypothesis with a large-scale field experiment assessing the causal impact of an information intervention targeting parents of pre-schoolers on both the frequency of shared book reading and the receptive vocabulary of children. Results indicate that low-educated parents are more reactive to this information intervention, with significant effects on the language development of their children. We conclude that information barriers on the potential of informal learning activities at home contribute to social inequalities in early childhood, and that removing these barriers is a cost-effective way to reduce these inequalities.

Publié en 2019-09 Collection DIAL Working Papers : 13
HERBAUT Estelle
ICHOU Mathieu
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This paper provides an overview of tracking policies in secondary education in France. Drawing on two large datasets on educational trajectories and labour-market outcomes, it identifies patterns of social inequalities associated with track allocation in secondary education. It assesses the long-term consequences of track assignment and its mediating role in the association between social origin and occupational outcomes. Results confirm the large association between social origin and track allocation on the one hand, and between track attainment and higher education and labour-market outcomes at occupational maturity on the other hand. We also find that track attainment accounts for a large share of the association between social origin, measured either by parental education or by social class, and outcomes at occupational maturity. These results highlight the importance of tracking policies for social stratification in the French context.

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