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  • ASSIRELLI Giulia (9)
  • RECCHI Ettore (6)
  • ARGENTIN Gianluca (5)
  • PIN Clément (5)
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Type de Document
  • Article (23)
  • Working paper (9)
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in Longitudinal and Life Course Studies Publié en 2021-04
HERBAUT Estelle
ICHOU Mathieu
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This paper examines the labour-market returns to different high school tracks in the French context. We use rich nationally representative longitudinal data running from the beginning of secondary education until entrance into the labour market: the Panel d’élèves du second degré, recrutement 1995 combined with the Entrée dans la vie adulte-EVA follow-up survey. Analysing these data, we are able to identify the consequences of track placement in high school on various labour-market outcomes controlling for social and academic selection into tracking. Our results show that academic diplomas offer higher labour-market benefits than vocational diplomas, even when adjusting for selection into tracks based on prior school performance, family background and other socio-demographic characteristics. The advantage of the academic track stays large, both for the whole group of upper secondary graduates and for those who have not achieved a tertiary degree. Our results further indicate that academic qualifications are even more rewarding for service-class graduates. We discuss the theoretical and policy implications of our results for processes of intergenerational reproduction. Key messages: Secondary academic diplomas offer higher labour market benefits than vocational ones, even when adjusting for selection into tracks. The academic path is the most rewarding option in France, even among students who do not complete tertiary education. Secondary academic qualifications are even more rewarding for service class graduates, in terms of boosting access to service class jobs.

in Longitudinal and Life Course Studies Publié en 2021-04
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Students and parents choose among high school tracks based on the assumption that academic tracks will offer a better preparation for university while vocational tracks will make the transition in the labour market easier, if students do not have a tertiary degree. We assess whether this assumption holds also when considering the long-term occupational outcomes of tracks choices in upper secondary education, controlling for both social and ability selection into tracks. We use for this purpose recent data from the 2014 ISFOL PLUS survey and apply linear regression/probability models to investigate labour market outcomes in a stage of occupational maturity. We find that, while there are no significant differences between tracks in the likelihood of being employed, students with an academic diploma fare better than vocational students in terms of social class attainment, even in the absence of a tertiary degree. The advantage of the academic diploma holds both for entering the salariat class and the high salariat class, and for avoiding demotion into manual occupations or unskilled manual occupations. We also show that tracking accounts for a large proportion of the total effects of socio-economic background on occupational attainment, and that coming from socio-economically advantaged families exacerbates the labour market advantages of attending an academic track.

in British Journal of Sociology of Education Publié en 2021-03
HERBAUT Estelle
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This article examines how girls and boys choose their tertiary field of study and how the different factors driving their choices contribute to gender segregation in higher education (GSHE) in France. We present seven theoretical explanations for GSHE, review the relevant literature and discuss their applicability to the French context. Using rich longitudinal data combining administrative sources, students, parents and school head questionnaires, we assess the heuristic value of these explanations. We employ multinomial logit models as well as decomposition techniques for categorical outcome variables. Our results refute explanations arguing that GSHE reflects gender differences in skills or girls’ lower career ambitions. We conclude that curricular differentiation and occupational plans are key drivers of GSHE, even when controlling for ability selection into secondary curricula and for parental and teachers’ gender-stereotypical influences.

in Rationality and Society Publié en 2021-02
BARG Katherin
ICHOU Mathieu
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This work examines the validity of the two main assumptions of relative risk-aversion models of educational inequality. We compare the Breen-Goldthorpe (BG) and the Breen-Yaish (BY) models in terms of their assumptions about status maintenance motives and beliefs about the occupational risks associated with educational decisions. Concerning the first assumption, our contribution is threefold. First, we criticise the assumption of the BG model that families aim only at avoiding downward mobility and are insensitive to the prospects of upward mobility. We argue that the loss-aversion assumption proposed by BY is a more realistic formulation of status-maintenance motives. Second, we propose and implement a novel empirical approach to assess the validity of the loss-aversion assumption. Third, we present empirical results based on a sample of families of lower secondary school leavers indicating that families are sensitive to the prospects of both upward and downward mobility, and that the loss-aversion hypothesis of BY is empirically supported. As regards the risky choice assumption, we argue that families may not believe that more ambitious educational options entail occupational risks relative to less ambitious ones. We present empirical evidence indicating that, in France, the academic path is not perceived as a risky option. We conclude that, if the restrictive assumptions of the BG model are removed, relative-risk aversion needs not drive educational inequalities.

Publié en 2021-02 Collection DIAL Working Paper Series : 02/2021
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This paper uses longitudinal data from seven countries to assess how systems of educational tracking can impact on social mobility. Studies which simply compare comprehensive and tracked systems may be flawed, the research suggests, because of differences in how countries separate students for instructional purposes. The researchers used large-scale longitudinal data from Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, and Italy, most of it relating to children born in the 1970s. They asked three questions: to what extent can social origins predict the type of secondary school track a child attends; to what extent can the track followed in secondary school predict educational and work outcomes; and to what extent does tracking in secondary education account for the long-term effects of social origin? The research finds that Germany, where selection takes place early, has the most pronounced association between origins and destinations, while Nordic countries which favour inclusivity show the weakest associations. But when country-specific factors are taken into account the role of tracking in mediating social reproduction remains remarkably similar across all countries. The paper concludes that future studies need to factor in fine-grained, rather than crude, differences in countries’ systems of educational differentiation when studying links between systems, social origins and outcomes.

Shared book reading (SBR) between parents and children is often regarded as a significant mediator of social inequalities in early skill development processes. We argue that socially biased gaps between parents in the awareness of the benefits of this activity for school success contribute to inequalities between children in access to this activity and in their language development. We test this hypothesis with a large-scale field experiment assessing the causal impact of an intervention targeting parents of pre-schoolers on both the frequency of SBR and the receptive vocabulary of children. Results indicate that low-educated parents are more reactive to this intervention, with significant effects on the language development of their children. We conclude that cognitive barriers and information gaps on the potential of informal learning activities at home fuel social inequalities in early childhood. At the same time, light-touch interventions removing these barriers are a cost-effective way of reducing these inequalities.

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Le présent rapport se fixe un objectif pour le moins ambitieux. Il s’agit de donner un aperçu de ce que nous savons en tant que scientifiques au sujet des dimensions développementales qui, dans la petite enfance, sont particulièrement prédictrices de l’accomplissement académique et du bien-être futur, de l’effet des modes d’accueil formels sur le développement et des barrières à leur accès, ainsi que des interventions qui peuvent être faites auprès des parents pour accompagner leur développement, avec toujours une attention particulière aux impacts sur les inégalités de destin.

in Educational Research and Evaluation Publié en 2020-10
EMILIO Chambuleyron
VONNAK Reka
ASSIRELLI Giulia
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Over the past 2 decades, a growing number of randomised controlled trials have assessed the impact on children’s language skills of interventions encouraging parents to read books to their offspring. We present the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of 30 such interventions. Results indicate that they are often ineffective, and that only one specific methodology (dialogic reading) displays systematically positive impacts. Moreover, effective interventions display weaker impacts on low-socioeconomic groups, thus raising equity issues. Our systematic analysis of the research designs of these studies points at three major weaknesses. First, only short-term outcomes are measured, and, even within such a narrow time window, we find indications that treatment impacts fade out. A second limitation concerns the limited range of outcomes measured (receptive or expressive vocabulary). Finally, these studies display low external validity (ad hoc sampling, small sample sizes, lack of multi-site experiments, scant evidence outside Anglo-Saxon countries).

in Perspectivas y fronteras en el estudio de la desigualdad social: movilidad social y clases sociales en tiempos de cambio Sous la direction de SALIDO Olga, FACHELLI Sandra Publié en 2020-10
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in The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology Publié en 2020-10
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Cultural capital theory provides a structural explanation for the persistence of educational inequalities in affluent western societies. According to Bourdieu and Passeron, upper classes manage to impose their cultural conventions as superior and more legitimate cultural expressions, which are then transmitted and valued by educational institutions, thus generating a structural advantage for upper‐class children, who enjoy a higher cultural proximity between the family and the school environment. Qualitative and quantitative research has only partially supported this explanation and has opened the way to several reformulations of the original theory.

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