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  • SÉNAC Réjane (9)
  • NICOLAÏDIS Kalypso (4)
  • HACHIMI ALAOUI Myriam (4)
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in When States Take Right Back Edited by FARGUES Emilien, WINTER Elke, GIBNEY Matthew Publication date 2020-04
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This chapter sheds some light on why and how citizenship revocation currently acts as a bor- derline case with regard to liberal democracy. On the basis of the case studies of Australia, Canada, France, the Netherlands, the UK and the US collected in this edited volume, we analyse what is philosophically at stake in public discourses and policies about citizenship revocation, and how the latter questions and even destabilises liberal democracy. Firstly, we ask whether such destabilising effects consist not only in intensifying some internal tensions but in conjuring up dilemmas which imply a possible exit from liberal democracy or, at least, a decoupling between liberalism and democracy. Investigating this possible shift from tensions to dilemmas, we underline that the liberal dimension of citizenship, based on indi- vidual rights, have lost importance in setting out the conditions of access to the political ‘us’. Conversely, both the republican and communitarian claims, based on civic virtue and collective identity respectively, have gained prominence and have converged on a primary interest in a ‘thick’ common bond. Finally, we examine two specific issues the book shows to be of key interest in understanding how citizenship revocation puts liberal democracy to the test: on the one hand, the challenge to cosmopolitanism as posed by the return of patriotism and, on the other hand, the state promotion of shared values as a means to secure national identity, thus expressing an ethicisation-cum-ethnicisation of citizenship.

in Europe and the Refugee Response Edited by GOŹDZIAK Elżbieta M. , MAIN Izabella, SUTER Brigitte Publication date 2020-02
HACHIMI ALAOUI Myriam
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This chapter deals with “integration contracts” developed in France since 2003 with a view to promoting the “values of the Republic” among newcomers eligible for residence permits, whether they be migrants or refugees. Based on a field survey of two of these programs (CAI and CAIF), our analysis focuses on how morally and/or culturally “thick” is the value-based conception of integration expressed through these programs. After describing the European context of “civic turn” and the French background of civic anxiety behind their implementation, the chapter explores how the “values of the Republic” are publicly articulated and concretely inculcated to foreigners. Then, we clarify the tensions that emerge from the mandatory respect for the values declared to be genuinely “ours”, thus going beyond the vagueness of the “republican values” discourse. Finally, we examine whether this French politics of common values may – just like their European counterparts – lead to the twofold danger that the majority identity becomes homogenized and “others” excluded.

This paper sketches the portrait of French critical citizens on the eve of the 2017 presidential election. Following the work of Norris (1999), critical citizenship has emerged as part and parcel of the crisis in representative democracy. While critical citizenship is mainly discussed as a sign of civic apathy and distrust of political institutions and elites, our objective is to investigate the “positive” face of critical citizenship with a focus on what French critical citizens value and aspire to. Drawing on data from the CEVIPOF 2017 French electoral survey, we analyse the socio-demographic and political profile of four groups (Non-Critical Citizens, Demo-Reformers, Demo-Transformers and Demo-Exiters) and examine what is theoretically at stake in their respective models of democracy, criticism and aspirations.

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On the basis of the case studies collected in this special issue, the paper analyses what is philosophically at stake in public discourses and policies about citizenship revocation, and why the latter cur- rently acts as a borderline case with regard to liberal democracy. Firstly, we ask whether, beyond an intensification of internal ten- sions, the destabilizing effects attached to the revival of citizenship revocation conjure up dilemmas which imply a possible exit from liberal democracy or, at least, a decoupling between liberalism and democracy. Investigating this possible shift from tensions to dilem- mas, we underline that the liberal dimension of citizenship, based on individual rights, has lost importance in setting out the condi- tions of access to the political ‘us’. Conversely, both the republican and communitarian claims, based on civic virtue and collective identity, respectively, have gained prominence and have con- verged on a primary interest for a ‘thick’ common bond. Finally, we examine two specific issues of key interest in understanding how citizenship revocation puts liberal democracy to the test: the challenge to cosmopolitanism as posed by the return of patrio- tism, andthe state promotion of shared values as a means to secure national identity, thus expressing an ethicisation-cum- ethnicisation of citizenship.

8
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On the basis of the case studies collected in this special issue, the paper analyses what is philosophically at stake in public discourses and policies about citizenship revocation, and why the latter cur- rently acts as a borderline case with regard to liberal democracy. Firstly, we ask whether, beyond an intensification of internal ten- sions, the destabilizing effects attached to the revival of citizenship revocation conjure up dilemmas which imply a possible exit from liberal democracy or, at least, a decoupling between liberalism and democracy. Investigating this possible shift from tensions to dilem- mas, we underline that the liberal dimension of citizenship, based on individual rights, has lost importance in setting out the condi- tions of access to the political ‘us’. Conversely, both the republican and communitarian claims, based on civic virtue and collective identity, respectively, have gained prominence and have con- verged on a primary interest for a ‘thick’ common bond. Finally, we examine two specific issues of key interest in understanding how citizenship revocation puts liberal democracy to the test: the challenge to cosmopolitanism as posed by the return of patrio- tism, andthe state promotion of shared values as a means to secure national identity, thus expressing an ethicisation-cum- ethnicisation of citizenship.

in Les études européennes Edited by LARAT Fabrice, MANGENOT Michel, SCHIRMANN Sylvain Publication date 2018-11
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in Les défis du pluralisme Edited by HEIMPEL Daniela, TAHER Saaz Publication date 2018-10
HACHIMI ALAOUI Myriam
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En France comme ailleurs en Europe et en Amérique du Nord, les politiques d’intégration s’adressant aux migrants ont connu une évolution allant dans le sens, à la fois, d’une contractualisation du processus même d’intégration et d’une promotion publique des « valeurs » de la société d’accueil. Pris ensemble, ces deux mouvements aboutissent à une conception de l’intégration où le respect des « valeurs » considérées comme formant le socle du « nous » s’impose aux « autres » comme une contrainte faisant l’objet d’un contrat. Dans ce chapitre, nous analysons le cas français du Contrat d’Accueil et d’Intégration (CAI) pour clarifier les enjeux théoriques et pratiques qu’une telle conception de l’intégration peut avoir au regard des exigences posées par le pluralisme.

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Centré sur la contribution de Joseph Raz à la philosophie politique, cet article présente le « perfectionnisme de l’autonomie » défendu par ce libéral d’un genre particulier. Souhaitant concilier libéralisme et perfectionnisme, Raz affirme que l’État libéral peut et doit activement aider les citoyens dans leur poursuite d’une « vie bonne », qui vaut la peine d’être vécue. Ce sont d’abord les soubassements critiques de cette thèse qui sont ici analysés, et qui marquent l’opposition de Raz à une forme de libéralisme focalisé sur les droits individuels, sur la neutralité axiologique de l’État et sur l’individualisme moral. Ensuite, les piliers philosophiques de son perfectionnisme libéral sont examinés. Ils comportent une conception de la liberté comme autonomie personnelle, la souscription au pluralisme des valeurs, et une limitation poussée de l’intervention morale de l’État. Pour conclure, on s’intéresse aux ambiguïtés, difficultés et tensions repérées dans la théorie politique de Raz, non sans alimenter la question de savoir si son perfectionnisme libéral est vraiment libéral.

in Comparative Perspectives on the Enforcement and Effectiveness of Antidiscrimination Law Edited by MERCAT-BRUNS Marie, OPPENHEIMER David Publication date 2018
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This chapter explores resistance to non-discrimination law by analyzing the political issues raised by tracking the borders of the political “us.” Through the prism of a comparative analysis of France and the Netherlands, we investigate convergence and divergence surrounding the content and implementation of non-discrimination law. We thus examine the issues involved in the struggle against discrimination in two “integration models”: France, which is associated with a culture of so-called “republican” integration but which has recently complemented it by “diversity” policies, and the Netherlands, which until recently adopted a “multicultural” approach but which has moved toward integration and indeed assimilation. For each country, we will address three issues by a comparative analysis: the relationship to the principle of equality, the role played by the actors, and controversies surrounding implementation non-discrimination law.

in Croire et faire croire Edited by MUXEL Anne Publication date 2017-11
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La défense d’un « credo républicain », fait d’un ensemble de valeurs particulières, est ici analysée en lien avec les débats philosophiques sur le rapport de l’État au pluralisme des valeurs. Deux options sont confrontées : celle d’une neutralité axiologique de l’État et celle d’un État perfectionniste intervenant au sujet du bien et d’une vie valant la peine d’être vécue. Sur cette base théorique, on se demande si la promotion des « valeurs de la République », telle qu’elle se déploie actuellement en France dans plusieurs secteurs de l’action publique, s’apparente à un « patriotisme des valeurs » relevant d’une version forte de républicanisme.

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