Co-auteur
  • FRANÇOIS Pierre (11)
  • ZALC Claire (8)
  • BARTOLOMEI Arnaud (6)
  • MOUNIER Lise (4)
  • Voir plus
Type de Document
  • Article (52)
  • Partie ou chapitre de livre (29)
  • Compte-rendu d’ouvrage (27)
  • Communication non publiée (11)
  • Voir plus
in La Vie des Idées Publié en 2020-01-24
ZIMMER Alexandre
CÉNAC Peggy
13
vues

0
téléchargements
Les politiques publiques françaises concentrent les moyens de recherche sur quelques “sites”, aux dépens de régions entières, creusant les inégalités entre universités dites “d’élite” ou “de masse”. Mais de nombreux travaux empiriques démontrent l’inefficacité d’une telle concentration des moyens.

This paper elaborates on our joint experience of teaching quantitative methods to (mostly) historians since the early 2000s and writing an introductory book on this topic, first in French, then in English, in a revised and expanded version. All along, our intent has been threefold: 1/ to make quantitative methods accessible for all historians, especially those who do not think that such methods are “for them,” because they do not enjoy mathematics or because they study topics that are not traditionally considered as suited to quantification (this is probably the situation of many “new historians of capitalism,” if not many economic historians). We have sometimes written that we wanted to make quantitative history banal, in the sense that it would be published in regular historical journals without being remarked upon for being quantitative; 2/ to contribute to less routine uses of quantification in the social sciences by promoting diversity in methods and imagination in categorization schemes – going beyond “the usual suspects” in terms of sources, variables, and calculations. This was initially important for us because we thought that routine was one of the things that has harmed the first wave of quantitative history (the one associated with cliometrics). Now we are also confronting new routines associated with “digital humanities” and “big data” issues…; 3/ to promote respect of the basic tenets of the historical profession, i.e. principles of source criticism, as the cornerstone of the constitution of data from historical sources. This third goal has become more and more central for us – hence its presence in the title of this working paper. Like our second goal, it is, we think, relevant for economic historians. The first part of this paper begins by explaining where we speak from. As practices of quantification differ between countries and sub-disciplines, we first tell a few words about our experience in learning, then teaching quantitative history, and writing our books. Then we sum up how these trajectories led us to assess issues associated with the first wave of quantification (anachronism, an undue focus on aggregates, insignificant results produced by costly, hierarchical projects), to regret the return of some of these issues under the guise of “big data,” and to find resources in micro-history and sociology to promote an alternative – constructivist, small-scale, experimental quantitative history. The second and third parts of the paper briefly sketches the main principles that we promote in our teaching, with examples in and out of economic history/the history of capitalism. It addresses the transformation of sources into quantifiable data, then discusses data categorization and analysis.

in Apprenticeship in Early Modern Europe Sous la direction de PRAK Maarten, WALLIS Patrick Publié en 2019-10
CROWSTON Clare
6
vues

0
téléchargements
Apprenticeship was available in France within the context of guilds, but was also offered by individuals and institutions outside that context. Whether guilds were involved or not, French apprenticeships were always arranged under notarial contracts. This created a double structure of oversight: corporate and legal. All apprenticeship arrangements in France, however, took their cues from the guild framework. This explains why, after the abolition of the guilds during the French Revolution, the apprenticeship model in France continued more or less as it had done in the eighteenth century, despite the absence of the former institutional effect or certification. Girls, however, gained new training opportunities in the nineteenth century. For boys, the number of incomplete apprenticeships, already high before 1800, further increased after that date. Throughout the period, social skills were as important in the apprentice’s education as economic skills.

1
vues

0
téléchargements
Erika Vause, an Assistant Professor of History and St. John’s University, is passionate about early nineteenth French history and especially the “Revolutions” of the title, those of 1789 and 1848. As she shows, credit — public as well as private — was then hotly and extensively discussed. In order to better understand the economic, political, and cultural stakes of the discussions, Vause focuses on two legal devices that were specific to merchants: debt imprisonment and bankruptcy. After three brief abolitions, imprisoning debtors was finally abrogated in 1867. Bankruptcy law entailed criminal and commercial procedures, depending on suspicions of fraud, and was regularly reformed.

0
vues

0
téléchargements
En plus d’une étude sous tous les angles et à toutes les échelles de la pratique de la convention collective de 1890 à 1914, en France et en Allemagne, le livre offre des synthèses du plus récent état de la recherche sur l’organisation du travail dispersé dans les fabriques collectives urbaines (aussi appelées aujourd’hui « districts industriels »), dans le bâtiment, dans ce qui reste de la proto-industrie rurale ; sur ce que fait le développement des syndicats ouvriers et patronaux à des pratiques de négociation collective qui leur préexistaient ; sur l’élaboration des statistiques des grèves ; sur le fonctionnement concret des tribunaux chargés du travail ; sur les débats juridiques, économiques et sociaux dans les universités et les ministères – liste non exhaustive.

Publié en 2019-03
ZALC Claire
GOLDHAMMER Arthur
15
vues

0
téléchargements
This timely and lucid guide is intended for students and scholars working on all historical periods and topics in the humanities and social sciences--especially for those who do not think of themselves as experts in quantification, "big data," or "digital humanities." The authors reveal quantification to be a powerful and versatile tool, applicable to a myriad of materials from the past. Their book, accessible to complete beginners, offers detailed advice and practical tips on how to build a dataset from historical sources and how to categorize it according to specific research questions. Drawing on examples from works in social, political, economic, and cultural history, the book guides readers through a wide range of methods, including sampling, cross-tabulations, statistical tests, regression, factor analysis, network analysis, sequence analysis, event history analysis, geographical information systems, text analysis, and visualization. The requirements, advantages, and pitfalls of these techniques are presented in layperson’s terms, avoiding mathematical terminology. Conceived primarily for historians, the book will prove invaluable to other humanists, as well as to social scientists looking for a nontechnical introduction to quantitative methods. Covering the most recent techniques, in addition to others not often enough discussed, the book will also have much to offer to the most seasoned practitioners of quantification.

in La storia in digitale. Teorie e metodologie Sous la direction de PACI Deborah Publié en 2019
0
vues

0
téléchargements
L'analyse de textes va-t-elle enfin entrer dans la boîte à outils de l'historien.ne ? La quantité grandissante de sources numérisées la rend plus rapide (le temps de numérisation était souvent un obstacle infranchissable auparavant). Elle rend toutefois encore plus nécessaire la réflexion critique sur ce qui est en ligne et ce qui n'y est pas (la plupart des textes documentant les dominé.e.s, notamment). Le choix de ce que l'on regarde de loin, plus encore que les décisions en matière de méthodes, oriente en effet les résultats.

2
vues

0
téléchargements
Les renouvellements de l’historiographie ont révisé une vision du travail au XIXe siècle qui était dominée par les modèles du paternalisme, de la discipline usinière et de la liberté de contrat sans limite. Ils décrivent des rapports de travail plus précaires mais aussi plus négociés, notamment dans le cadre des chaînes de sous-traitance complexes de la fabrique collective et de la proto-industrie. Les conseils de prud’hommes étaient en particulier un lieu de délibération sur des règles qui pouvaient dans une certaine mesure redresser le rapport de forces en faveur des ouvrier·es. Ces conseils produisaient un « droit des ouvriers », bien distinct de celui des marchands, même si les rapports entre ouvrier·es et patron·nes ressemblaient à des rapports marchands. Les conseils de prud’hommes étaient cependant loin d’être accessible à tou·tes les travailleur·ses manuel·les ; beaucoup ne pouvaient pas participer à l’élaboration de ce droit ni bénéficier de son application.

34
vues

34
téléchargements
Powers of attorney are often interpreted as evidence of trust among the parties involved. We build a novel dataset of notarized powers of attorney, capturing a wide variety of agency relationships in four large French commercial cities in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, to test hypotheses on the relational basis of economic relationships. We find little support for the idea of a radical shift from personal to anonymous relationships during our period. Our results point to more nuanced transformations. The preference for proxies in the same occupation as the principal somewhat declined, while professional proxies emerged and principals used relational chains, especially involving notaries, to find proxies.

in Mélanges de l'école française de Rome. Italie et Méditerranée Publié en 2019
0
vues

0
téléchargements
Dans bien des villes françaises du XIXe siècle, l'apprentissage survit à la fin des corporations. Généralement reconnu comme une relation domestique, modelée sur la relation père-fils, l'apprentissage est toutefois aussi un contrat, dont les conseils de prud'hommes doivent faire respecter les dispositions. L'article discute tout d'abord de la fixation des frontières entre apprentissage et domesticité, soulignant que les rapports de pouvoir au sein du ménage du maître ou de la maîtresse sont reconfigurés par l'apprentissage. Il évoque ensuite les figures de l'autorité paternelle bourgeoise (prud'hommes et « patrons » des patronages) qui interviennent dans les rapports entre les apprenti·es, en majorité issu·es de milieux populaires, leurs parents et leurs maîtres·ses. Il mesure enfin les marges de manœuvre que ces jeux de pouvoir ouvraient, ou non, aux apprenti·es.

Suivant