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in Cambridge Handbook of Constitutional Theory Sous la direction de BELLAMY Richard, KING Jeff Publié en 2022
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What does it mean to treat people as equals when the legacies of feudalism, religious persecution, authoritarian, paternalistic and oligarchic government have shaped the landscape within which we must construct something better? This question has come to dominate much constitutional practice as well as philosophical inquiry in the past 50 years. The combination of Second Wave Feminism with the continuing struggle for racial equality in the 1970s brought into sharp relief the variety of ways in which people can be treated unequally, while respecting the formalities of constitutional government. Above all, what these two great political movements made plain, is that a concern for group inequality and, specifically, group injustice must figure in the formulation and adjudication of individual rights, if legal protections for equality are adequately to combat the causes of inequality. Getting to grips with that challenge, it became obvious, required going beyond the familiar analyses of inequality inherited from Liberalism and Marxism, given the many different ways in which people can be equal or unequal.(Hackett and Haslanger 2006, 3 - 15) In the first part of this chapter, I will seek to illustrate these claims, by focusing on efforts to reframe the theory and practice of constitutional equality in light of demands for sexual and racial equality. I will then show that analytic philosophy has also come to recognise the various non-reducible dimensions of equality in ways that reinforce the claims of critical legal theory, even as philosophers highlight their disconcerting consequences. If equality has multiple irreducible dimensions, conflicts between the legitimate demands of equality are unavoidable features of law and politics, even in the best possible world, and are likely to be particularly painful when set against a background of historical injustice. The chapter concludes with the challenges to democratic constitutionalism, and the scope for constructive responses to those challenges, which the rapprochement between critical and analytic thinking on equality suggests.

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https://www.telos-eu.com/fr/plaidoyer-pour-la-deconstruction.html L'article est une réponse à la critique des 'cultural studies' et les théories dites 'constructionistes' de Nathalie Heinich. l'article explique qu'il n'y a rien forcément problématique à insister sur l'aspect construit et arbitraire des aspects de nos vies et nos catégories de pensée, tels que le genre, la race, etc, même si on peut insister sur l'aspect moralement arbitraire de la vie sans la voir comme 'construite' et les théories constructionistes n'impliquent pas forcément que les structures sociales sont faites à l'hasard ou ne sont pas susceptibles d'explication.

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This article develops an intuitive idea of proportionality as a placeholder for a substantive conception of equality, and contrasts it with Ripstein’s ideas, as presented in an annual guest lecture to the Society of Applied Philosophy, in 2016. It uses a discussion of racial profiling to illustrate the conceptual and normative differences between the two. The brief conclusion spells out my concern that talk of ‘proportionality’, though often helpful and, sometimes, necessary for moral reasoning, can end up concealing, rather than illuminating, people’s claims to be treated as equals.

Sous la direction de SATZ Debra, LEVER Annabelle Publié en 2019-09
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The essays in this volume take off from themes in the work of eminent philosopher and political scientist Joshua Cohen. Cohen is a deeply influential thinker who has written on deliberative democracy, freedom of expression, Rawlsian theory, global justice, and human rights. The essays gathered here both engage with Cohen's work and expand upon it, embodying his commitment to the idea that analytical work by philosophers and social scientists matters to our shared public life and to democracy itself. The contributors offer novel perspectives on pressing issues of public policy from accountability for sexual violence to exploitation in international trade. The volume is organized around three central ideas. The first concerns democracy, specifically how we can improve collective decision-making both by elucidating our normative principles and enacting institutional changes. The second idea centers on how we confront injustice, investigating the role of emotions, social norms, and culture in democratic politics and public discussion. The final section explores how we develop political principles and values in an interdependent world, one in which theories of justice and forms of cooperation are increasingly extending beyond the state. The principle uniting this collection is that ideas matter-they can guide us in understanding how to confront difficult global problems such as the fragility of democratic institutions, the place of sovereignty in a globalizing world, and the persistence of racial injustice.

in Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy Publié en 2019-02
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The core idea of this paper is that we can use the differences between democratic and undemocratic governments to illuminate ethical problems. Democratic values, rights and institutions lie between the most abstract considerations of ethics and meta-ethics and the most particularised decisions, outcomes and contexts. Hence, this paper argues, we can use the differences between democratic and undemocratic governments, as we best understand them, to structure our theoretical investigations, to test and organise our intuitions and ideas, and to explain and justify our philosophical conclusions. Specifically, as we will see, a democracy-centred approach to ethics can help us to distinguish liberal and democratic approaches to political morality in ways that reflect the varieties of democratic theory, and the importance of distinguishing democratic from undemocratic forms of liberalism.

in Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy Publié en 2019
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L'idée principale de ce document est que nous pouvons utiliser les différences entre les gouvernements démocratiques et non démocratiques pour éclairer les problèmes éthiques, en particulier dans le domaine de la philosophie politique. Les valeurs, les droits et les institutions démocratiques se situent entre les considérations les plus abstraites de l'éthique et de la méta-éthique et les décisions, les résultats et les contextes les plus particuliers. Par conséquent, cet article soutient que nous pouvons utiliser les différences entre les gouvernements démocratiques et non démocratiques pour structurer nos recherches théoriques, pour tester et organiser nos intuitions et nos idées, et pour expliquer et justifier nos conclusions philosophiques de manière analogue à la distinction entre les théories conséquentialistes et déontologiques en philosophie morale, ou entre les principes libéraux et républicains en philosophie politique. Plus précisément, comme nous le verrons, une approche de l'éthique centrée sur la démocratie permet de distinguer les approches libérales et démocratiques de la moralité politique d'une manière qui reflète à la fois les variétés de la théorie démocratique et l'importance de distinguer les formes démocratiques et non démocratiques du libéralisme

in Ideas that Matter Sous la direction de SATZ Debra, LEVER Annabelle Publié en 2019
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La démocratie constitue-t-elle un droit de l’homme ? Et quelles sont les justifications qui pourraient fonder un tel droit ? Ces questions sont soulevées dans l’article de Joshua Cohen paru en 2006 intitulé « Is There a Human Right to Democracy ? ». De mon côté, je ne soutiens pas sa principale affirmation qui consiste à dire que si la justice exige un gouvernement démocratique alors la norme appropriée en matière de droits de l'homme exige quelque chose de moins. En revanche, comme j'espère le montrer, ce qui me gêne à la lecture de cet article n’est pas que Cohen ne considère pas la démocratie comme un droit de l’homme mais plutôt la mise en lumière par ce débat de nos importantes lacunes en matière de compréhension du statut de la démocratie vis-à-vis des droits de l’homme. Ainsi, je commence par situer l’article de Cohen dans les débats philosophiques sur la structure et la justification des droits de l’homme. J’examine ensuite le débat sur la démocratie et les droits de l'homme qu'il a suscité et j'explique en quoi ce débat est complexe. Enfin, je soulève les difficultés qui se posent à une philosophie des droits de l’homme si l'on accepte, comme nous devrions probablement le faire, que la démocratie n'est pas à ce jour, le meilleur modèle à même d’être considéré comme un droit de l’homme. Enfin, même si la question de la démocratie comme droit de l’homme reste encore ouverte, j’espère par cet article contribuer à la philosophie politique sur les droits de l’homme.

in Petit traité des valeurs Sous la direction de DEONNA Julien, TIEFFENBACH Emma Publié en 2018-02
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Sous la direction de LEVER Annabelle, POAMA Andrei Publié en 2018
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What does it mean to do public policy ethics today? How should philosophers engage with ethical issues in policy-making when policy decisions are circumscribed by political and pragmatic concerns? How do ethical issues in public policy differ between areas such as foreign policy, criminal justice, or environmental policy? The Routledge Handbook of Ethics and Public Policy addresses all these questions and more, and is the first handbook of its kind. It is comprised of 41 chapters written by leading international contributors, and is organised into four clear sections covering the following key topics: Methodology: philosophical approaches to public policy, ethical expertise, knowledge, and public policy Democracy and public policy: identity, integration and inclusion: voting, linguistic policy, discrimination, youth policy, religious toleration, and the family Public goods: defence and foreign policy, development and climate change, surveillance and internal security, ethics of welfare, healthcare and fair trade, sovereignty and territorial boundaries, and the ethics of nudging Public policy challenges: criminal justice, policing, taxation, poverty, disability, reparation, and ethics of death policies. The Routledge Handbook of Ethics and Public Policy is essential reading for students and researchers in philosophy, politics, and social policy. It will be equally useful to those in related disciplines, such as economics and law, or professional fields, such as business administration or policy-making in general.

in Ethics, Left and Right: The Moral Issues That Divide Us Sous la direction de FISCHER Bob Publié en 2018
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