Co-auteur
  • GUILD Elspeth (21)
  • GUITTET Emmanuel-Pierre (10)
  • BONELLI Laurent (9)
  • WALKER Robert (7)
  • Voir plus
Type de Document
  • Article (66)
  • Partie ou chapitre de livre (22)
  • Contribution à un site web (10)
  • Livre (9)
  • Voir plus
in International Journal of Migration and Border Studies Publié en 2020-05-11
EWERT Lina
KUŞKONMAZ Elif Mendos
10
vues

0
téléchargements
This article aims to discuss the interoperability controversy in the EU that followed the 2015 Paris attacks. Supported by visual methods, it analyses the historical developments of the databases that aim at facilitating migration and crime control in the Area of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA). In so doing, it seeks to trace the paradox on freedom, technology, and surveillance since the Schengen area was established in the 90s, whereby the discourse on the freedom of movement (both as the rights of citizens and migrants crossing borders) has been reframed by the security reasoning using technological solutions. It critiques the technical framework within which the interoperability plans have been framed.

Smart borders, intelligent systems of filtering travelers by detecting suspects of crime and terrorism through interoperable national data bases and regional agreements are proliferating. In the European Union it began with the Schengen Information System. SIS-VISEURODAC, EES, ETIAS, ECRIS are acronyms for different realizations and projects of Entry and Exit Systems, of pre-frontiers zone, of policy checks regarding police, immigration and asylum, tracing people and scoring the degree to which they can be suspected to be illegal or criminal. Security stakes have been technologized. This is a profound reconfiguration of the different regional fields of security professionals with the emergence of a transnational guild regrouping data analysts, civil engineers on IT systems and border controls, changing de facto who is deciding the limits between security and insecurity, risk and fate. This importance of the online -virtual regarding the off-line- actual is affecting freedom and criminal justice.

in Charting Transnational Fields. Methodology for a Political Sociology of Knowledge Sous la direction de SCHMIDT-WELLENBURG Christian, BERNHARD Stefan Publié en 2020-05
19
vues

0
téléchargements
This paper addresses the possibility of using Bourdieusian concepts like fields of power, professional dispositions, and cultural habitus to explore transnational practices. To resolve questions of transnational field(s) we need to examine what constitutes transnational practices. I suggest reading ‘transnational’ as a signifier that is not limited to practices reserved for non-state actors and I show that transnational practices are constitutive of the field of state formation. It is here that the Bourdieusian approach to the state, not as an actor, but as a field, is central. It allows to analyse stateness today and its relatively new assemblage with private actors, with digital stakes, and with a modification of the use of force towards a use of surveillance and control at a distance. My research on the Five Eyes coalition of SIGINT(Signals Intelligence)-internet intelligence services and its members’ co-operation for the large-scale interception of data obliges us to rethink the nature of national security today and it gives empirical ground to the call to abandon the false dualism between territory and digital space in the exercise of state power, and suggests an alternative way of thinking national and transnational practices together, as one category of practice only.

L’information numérique est à l’évidence devenue un enjeu et un objet central du travail des services de renseignement. La plupart d’entre eux intègrent désormais dans leur activité routinière le recueil de données personnelles venant de multiples secteurs de la vie sociale d’un individu et de ses relations, ainsi que leur analyse. Mais ils le font de manière diverse selon leur ancienneté dans le métier, leurs capacités en termes de personnel, de moyens financiers et technologiques, et surtout selon leurs visions de ce qu’est l’activité de renseignement. À partir de l’étude des principaux services de neuf pays occidentaux (États-Unis, Grande-Bretagne, Canada, Australie, Nouvelle-Zélande, France, Allemagne, Espagne et Suède), cet article se propose de construire rigoureusement un espace transnational du renseignement. La mise en relation des positions et des discours de ces acteurs avec leurs pratiques et le sens qu’ils leur donnent permet de comprendre les homologies ou, au contraire, les différences irréductibles qui structurent ensuite les coopérations et les types d’échange de données.

in International Studies Perspectives Publié en 2019-11
TANCZER Leonie Maria
DEIBERT Ronald
FRANKLIN Marianne
MELGAÇO Lucas
LYON David
KAZANSKY Becky
MILAN Stefania
20
vues

0
téléchargements
Internet et les technologies digitales sont devenus indispensables dans le milieu universitaire. Un monde sans e-mails, moteurs de recherche et bases de données en ligne est pratiquement impensable. Cependant, dans cette ère de dépendance digitale, le milieu universitaire ne semble pas préoccupé par les nombreux défis que posent les technologies digitales dans les professions universitaires. Cette tribune a été inspirée par le débat d'une table ronde lors de la Convention annuelle de l'Association d’études internationales de 2017, où un grand nombre d'auteurs dans l'assemblée ont convenu de la nécessité de lancer un débat critique sur les effets de la surveillance et des méthodes de censure en ligne sur le savoir universitaire. Cette tribune formule cinq critiques à l'encontre de nos infrastructures numérisées, des institutions pilotées par les données, des entreprises mercenaires, des plateformes universitaires abusives et des pratiques en ligne non sécurisées. L'ensemble des articles de cette collection unique contribue à la recherche sur la liberté universitaire et aide à encadrer l'analyse du secteur néolibéral de l'enseignement supérieur, les pratiques de surveillance rencontrées par les étudiants et le personnel et la nécessité grandissante d'améliorer notre «hygiène digitale».

in Data Politics. Worlds, Subjects, Rights Sous la direction de BIGO Didier, BIGO Didier, ISIN Engin, RUPPERT Evelyn Publié en 2019-05
ISIN Engin
RUPPERT Evelyn
58
vues

0
téléchargements
Data has become a social and political issue not only because it concerns anyone who is connected to the Internet but also because it reconfigures relationships between states, subjects, and citizens. Just about every device is now connected to the Internet and generating vast quantities of digital traces about interactions, transactions and movements whether users are aware or not. What started as an ostensibly liberated space rapidly became the space over and through which governments and corporations began collecting, storing, retrieving, analysing, and producing data that analyses what people do and say on the Internet. This ranges from who communicates with whom, who goes where, and who says what – and much more besides. This is now being augmented with data that people produce about themselves, especially their relations, body movements and measurements; the amount and range of data that has become available is, as everyone now knows, staggering. This chapter introduces the main themes of the book to position these developments within a broad historical-sociological perspective and to articulate an international political sociology of data politics.

Sous la direction de BIGO Didier, ISIN Engin, RUPPERT Evelyn Publié en 2019-05 Collection Routledge Studies in International Political Sociology
43
vues

0
téléchargements
Data has become a social and political issue because of its capacity to reconfigure relationships between states, subjects, and citizens. This book explores how data has acquired such an important capacity and examines how critical interventions in its uses in both theory and practice are possible. Data and politics are now inseparable: data is not only shaping our social relations, preferences and life chances but our very democracies. Expert international contributors consider political questions about data and the ways it provokes subjects to govern themselves by making rights claims. Concerned with the things (infrastructures of servers, devices, and cables) and language (code, programming, and algorithms) that make up cyberspace, this book demonstrates that without understanding these conditions of possibility it is impossible to intervene in or to shape data politics. Aimed at academics and postgraduate students interested in political aspects of data, this volume will also be of interest to experts in the fields of internet studies, international studies, Big Data, digital social sciences and humanities.

in Data Politics. Worlds, Subjects, Rights Sous la direction de BIGO Didier, BIGO Didier, ISIN Engin, RUPPERT Evelyn Publié en 2019-05
BONELLI Laurent
21
vues

0
téléchargements
Since Edward Snowden disclosures on NSA’s practices, many articles have been written about the relationship between digital data and Intelligence Services (IS), although few of them have investigated the use of these data by IS’ in their everyday practices. Presenting the first results of a three years research including interviews with practitioners and adopting a Bourdieusian perspective, this chapter proposes first to reflect on data ownership and the way IS intercept data and construct them for their own purposes, second with whom and how do they exchange data (trans)nationally. To this effect, we draw a transnational space of the objective positions of the different forms of capital mobilized by the various types of IS. As a result, three distinct groups emerge depending on the structural proximity of the type of institutional objectives they defend and by the way they use digital technology in order share data. Cooperation appears to be stronger at the transnational level than at the national one. In that respect, the linkage between positions, professional habitus and practices constitutes a challenging counterpoint both to the methodological nationalism, that presupposes the existence of a national intelligence community, and to a fairly common perspective in international relations and security studies that provides a disembodied analysis of intelligence practices and an history without actors.

in Research Handbook on Human Rights and Digital Technology Sous la direction de WAGNER Ben, KETTEMANN Matthias, VIETH Kilian Publié en 2019-02
108
vues

0
téléchargements
In the first section of this chapter, I analyze the current transformations of the definition, organization, and modalities of acquisition by which national security is delimited in different countries, and I argue that national security is no longer national as such, nor does it correspond to a traditional understanding of security as protection from war. This change in national security practices is what I call ‘the emergence of a digital reason of state’ based on the possibility for intelligence services to cooperate and compete to extend their goals of prevention of crime, terrorism or espionage by the inclusion of technologies collecting traces of human activities. This state of the game challenges the very idea of a ‘national’ security but this is not accepted or even acknowledged by security and intelligence studies. To understand nevertheless the structural changes, I propose in the second section to use the notion of field of struggles in a Bourdieusian sense in order to understand the battles between the actors that I called a transnational guild of the management of sensitive information, as well as the public controversies around the inevitability of large-scale surveillance. The positions of the field inform the struggles in terms of symbolic power between the actors and also the compliance of large parts of the public. The next element that I analyse in a third section is concerned with the forms of defiance and resistance against the power of these transnational guilds, that lawyers and judges or hackers try to put in motion, but which are often to some extent paralysed by the rapid acceptance that current technologies are inevitable and necessary. This form of doxa regarding the social effects of digital technologies impacts on the public at large and many academics, and reinforces a priori compliance, but is also generating alternative behaviours.

0
vues

0
téléchargements
Comme l’a montré le numéro précédent, l’état d’urgence est un dispositif spécifique qui ne se réduit ni à une mesure technique d’un état de droit en train de subir une crise grave et temporaire, ni à un dispositif qui accompagne la justification d’un autoritarisme de l’exécutif se caractérisant par un régime d’exception qui se pérennise dans le temps et ne comporte plus qu’une façade démocratique. L’état d’urgence ou plutôt les différentes formes juridiques qui permettent à l’état d’urgence de créer un effet de cliquet transformant les règles de l’État de droit au bénéfice de l’exécutif et surtout de la police et des services de renseignement, et au détriment de la justice pénale et des affaires étrangères, articulent quatre phénomènes. Plutôt que de les fusionner trop vite dans un méta-discours de l’exception, il est préférable de distinguer ces quatre phénomènes en montrant leur hétérogénéité et les combinaisons possibles entre certaines configurations (mais pas d’autres)...

Suivant