Co-auteur
  • RIFFLART Christine (7)
  • SCHWEISGUTH Danielle (6)
  • CHARLES Loïc (5)
  • LEVASSEUR Sandrine (4)
  • Voir plus
Type de Document
  • Article (24)
  • Partie ou chapitre de livre (10)
  • Working paper (9)
  • Article de presse ou magazine (4)
  • Voir plus
Publié en 2018-08 Nom de la conférence World Economic History Congress
4
vues

0
téléchargements
To study the transformations of the French economy in the long eighteenth century, we created both a dataset and an interactive data visualisation tool. To transform the transcriptions of 18th century French trade archives into a research tool we built a Information System which comprises a data versioning system, a graph database and a web application which allow researchers to widen their understanding of 18th century French international trade through both quantitative and qualitative analysis (http://toflit18.medialab.sciences-po.fr/). We will present the main concepts and visualization means of the TOFLIT18 datascape which can then be mobilized in a hands-on session. Participants will explore the large TOFLIT18 database of French trade flows between 1714 and 1821 by product and partners to gain new insights on issues such as the economic life and representations of eighteenth-century French consumers, producers and administrators and how they were transformed throughout the century.

Publié en 2018-07 Nom de la conférence World Economy History Congress
2
vues

0
téléchargements
The French «Bureau de la Balance du Commerce» 18th century data include more than 51,000 different merchandises mentioned in the 18th century sources (for 420,000 trade flows). Correcting for mistakes made by the original scribes and the person in charge of the transcription brings that number down to 24,500. Further identifying synonyms brings it down to 18,000. It is however necessary to devise some sort of aggregation process to be able to use the data collected to answer a wider set of economic history issues. This paper presents the technical solutions we found and their application to the question of the effect of the loss of Canada, the futility of mercantilist wars, medical drug trade, grain trade and the effect of the Franco-British Eden trade treaty.

This article offers an explanation for the convergence of fertility rates across French départements in the second half of the nineteenth century that emphasises the diffusion of information through internal migration. It tests how migration affected fertility by building a decennial bilateral migration matrix between French départements for 1861–1911. The identification strategy uses exogenous variation in transportation costs resulting from the construction of railways. The results suggest that the convergence towards low birth rates can be explained by the diffusion of cultural and economic information pertaining to low‐fertility behaviour by migrants, especially by migrants to and from Paris.

in International Economics Publié en 2017-10
CORLAY Guillaume
DUPRAZ Stéphane
LABONNE Claire
MULLER Anne
4
vues

0
téléchargements
Jacks et al. (2011) offer a method to measure trade costs that relies exclusively on bilateral exports and GDP statistics. They argue that the reduction in trade costs was the main driving force of trade growth during the first globalization (1870–1913), whereas economic expansion was the main driving force during the second globalization (1950–2000). This potentially major result is driven by the use of an ad hoc aggregation method of bilateral trade costs at the country and at the global levels. What Jacks et al. (2011) capture is that some pairs of countries experienced faster trade growth in the first globalization than in the second globalization. More generally, we cast doubts on the possibility to reach conclusions on aggregate costs with a method that excludes a priori changes in non-trade costs determinants of openness rates and hence can only rephrase the information contained in them.

TOFLIT18 is a project dedicated to French trade statistics from 1716 to 1821. It combines a historical trade database that covers French external trade comprising more than 500,000 flows at the level of partners and individual products with a range of tools that allow the exploration of the material world of the Early Modern period. TOFLIT18 is the result of the collaboration of data scientists, economists and historians. It started as a project funded by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche in 2014. http://toflit18.hypotheses.org

Publié en 2016-07 Collection Working paper de l'OFCE : 2016-25
CORLAY Guillaume
DUPRAZ Stéphane
LABONNE Claire
MULLER Anne
7
vues

0
téléchargements
Jacks et al. (2011) offer an alternative to price gaps to quantify trade costs. Implementing a method which consists in deducing international trade costs from trade flows, they argue that the reduction in trade costs was the main driving force of trade growth during the first globalization (1870-1913), whereas economic expansion was the main driving force during the second globalization (1950-2000). We argue that this important result is driven by the use of an ad hoc aggregation method. What Jacks et al. (2011) capture is the difference in the relative starting trade of dyads experiencing faster trade growth in the first and second globalization. More generally, we cast doubts on the possibility to reach conclusions of such nature with a method that infers trade costs from trade flows, and then uses these costs to explain trade flows. We argue that it can only rephrase the information already contained in openess ratios.

in L'Economie européenne 2016 Sous la direction de CREEL Jérôme Publié en 2016-02
LE CACHEUX Jacques
0
vues

0
téléchargements
La construction européenne vise, dès son origine, à la constitution d’un marché unique défini, à l’article 14 du traité instituant la Communauté européenne, comme « un espace sans frontières intérieures dans lequel la libre circulation des marchandises, des personnes, des services et des capitaux est assurée ». Pour y parvenir, l’UE est passée notamment par deux étapes : la constitution d’une union douanière en 1968, puis celle d’un Marché intérieur pratiquement achevé en 1995 avec l’entrée en vigueur des accords de Schengen ratifiés par dix États membres. L’union douanière se distingue de la zone de libre-échange par l’imposition de tarifs extérieurs communs, tandis que le Marché intérieur (ou Marché unique) se caractérise par un marché économique sans droits de douane, sans entraves et avec une harmonisation des réglementations. Le processus d’intégration s’accompagne donc de politiques communes, commerciale, de concurrence, de transport et agricole. Ces politiques, fédéralistes et centralisées, ont un caractère contraignant pour les États membres.

5
vues

5
téléchargements
La décomposition des chaînes de valeur internationales est un aspect important de la mondialisation. Partant d’une hypothèse d’inflation par les coûts, nous examinons la propagation des chocs d’offre sur les prix à partir des tableaux Input-Output mondiaux. Le modèle de Leontief adapté dans le cadre d'une économie monde nous permet d'analyser empiriquement l’impact de chocs de change et de productivité sur la zone euro et sur le reste du monde lorsque ces chocs émanent de la zone euro. Nous montrons que la diffusion des chocs opère principalement au premier tour et dépend de la part des inputs importés dans la production ou les exportations. En outre, les chocs de change sont en partie compensés par une modification des prix des inputs ce qui, en cas d'appréciation, limite la perte de compétitivité. L'ampleur de cette compensation n'est pas négligeable et elle est d’autant plus élevée que les pays de la zone euro sont ouverts. Elle est ainsi plus forte pour l’Allemagne (avec une élasticité des prix d’exportation à un choc de l’euro de -9 %) que pour la France (-8 %). L’impact des chocs de productivité est plus important que celui des chocs de change en raison d’un effet de résonance domestique avant leur diffusion internationale. Parmi les grands pays, l’Allemagne est celui qui bénéficie le plus des chocs positifs de productivité émanant des PECO hors zone euro : dans ce cas, l’élasticité de ses prix d’exportation est de 6 % contre 2,5 % pour la France.

Publié en 2016-01 Collection Working paper de l'OFCE : 2016-03
CHARLES Loïc
2
vues

0
téléchargements
During the eighteenth century Europe set the cultural, political and economic conditions for its entry in the industrial era. While the role of international trade has been for a long time considered as a minor factor in the industrial revolution, the focus of economic history has changed somewhat during the last two decades. The emergence of a global perspective in economic history has led prominent scholars to account for the important role of international trade in the rise of Europe over other world regions 5 But whereas extra-European trade is comparatively well known and has been the object of recent syntheses,6intra-European trade has largely been neglected. The scarcity of works on foreign trade statistics of preindustrial times is all the more unfortunate as external trade flows are the single economic data that (some) early modern states have collected with the most care. Indeed, the first attempts at measuring foreign trade regularly can be dated back to the seventeenth century. From 1696 on, the English crown was able to collect a continuous series of customs data and release a yearly evaluation of the English balance of trade. The French royal administration created the Bureau de la balance du commerce in 1713. Its task was to produce a yearly document that detailed the French external trade and calculated its general balance. There was a pan European move towards a more extensive and better measurement of external trade throughout the eighteenth century, with various countries gathering the same data through their central administrations .

in Revue de l'OFCE Sous la direction de CHARLES Loïc, DAUDIN Guillaume Publié en 2015-07
6
vues

6
téléchargements
Trade statistics provide unique sets of data on early modern economies.They can help explore their economic geography. They are of interest for econ-omists interested in economic development and early globalization. They are crucial to understand the Industrial Revolution. Still, they have been under- utilized by economists and economic historians alike. This volume gives adetailed overview on the existing quantitative sources on European trade data, focusing on the eighteenth century. In the introduction we discuss the histo-riography of the use of early trade statistics in economic history and we present two recent projects conducted in France in this area: TOFLIT18 and RICardo. The volume includes twenty-three short essays that present the sources of Euro-pean early trade statistics. Seven additional papers discuss the methodologicalissues of using early trade statistics and illustrate how these statistics can be mobilized to produce new insights on European economic history.

Suivant