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  • BROUSSEAU Eric (9)
  • SCHEMEIL Yves (4)
  • ZLOTOWSKI Yves (4)
  • BEUVE Jean (3)
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  • Article (69)
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in L'Enjeu Mondial, Les pays émergents Sous la direction de JAFFRELOT Christophe Publication date 2008
SGARD Jérôme
BOYER Robert
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Dans l’entretien qu’il nous accorde ici, Robert Boyer situe l’analyse à la croisée de la conjoncture économique et des tendances lourdes d’un monde globalisé où les pays émergents jouent déjà un rôle de premier plan.

in Global Constitutionalism Publication date 2012-11
BROUSSEAU Eric
SCHEMEIL Yves
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Political and economic rights are envisaged as the outcome of an ongoing bargain between citizens and their rulers. Over the long run, this constitutive process shapes the development of both the economy and the state. Globalization, however, corresponds to a period where both the market and civil society extend far beyond the borders of the initial political compact. Hence, citizens may not only ask that cross-border transactions be made easier; they may also challenge the institutional cohesion and integrity of the classical, Westphalian state, i.e., its legal and judicial order, and its bureaucratic capabilities. We are proposing a schematic description of how this political process may gradually exit the national perimeter and deliver four possible models of international or global governance, depending upon the potential structuring of coalitions between the potential winners of the globalization both in the elite and in society, and the losers; national games being ultimately arbitrated by the international competition among elites, but also by the possible formation of global coalitions of citizens and merchants.

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Since the early 1998 paper by LLSV, a growing body of research has argued that “legal origins” have a country-specific, time-invariant effect on property rights and economic development. Following the methodology of LLSV, an original data-base of 51 bankruptcy laws has been built: it ranges over fifteen European countries and more than a hundred years (1808-1914), and summarises how the rights and incentives of the parties were defined as the procedure unfold. The first conclusion is that, over the entire period, all legal traditions strongly protected creditors’ rights; only English law comes out prima facie as less protective. Second, evidences suggests that the evolution of these laws was influenced less by their past than by continent-wide trends, arguably linked to capitalist development. An early 19th century model thus saw heavy repression of failed debtors and highly regulated judicial procedures. After a transition period from the late 1860s to the late 1880s, prison for debt was abandoned, rehabilitation became easier, and the parties were given much more room to re-contract on property rights.

Andrzej Franaszek a écrit une très belle biographie du poète et essayiste polonais Czeslaw Milosz (1911-2004), dont le prix Nobel de Littérature, en 1980, avait couronné une carrière jusque-là discrète, sinon confidentielle: un long exil en France et en Californie l’avaient coupé de son public naturel et peu traductions lui avaient donné accès à de nouveaux lecteurs. A tout prendre son nom restait attaché au succès de La Pensée Captive, publié à Paris en 1953, un des grands classiques de la littérature d’opposition dans cette « Autre Europe », passée sous la domination soviétique après 1945...

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A sa création, en 1945, le FMI n'avait pas de règles concrètes qui guideraient les conditions de son intervention financière dans ses pays-membres. Il les a donc inventées progressivement, tout en s'adaptant à l'évolution du système financier international.

in La Lettre du CEPII Publication date 2003-12
SGARD Jérôme
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La pauvreté au Brésil n'est pas tant l'effet de la faiblesse du revenu moyen que de l’existence de très fortes inégalités. Comme ailleurs, l'accès à l'éducation constitue le meilleur outil pour améliorer la mobilité sociale. Mais le "rendement" de l'éducation en termes de revenus, s'il reste élevé au Brésil comparé aux pays voisins, a diminué au cours des deux dernières décennies. La conjonction de réformes structurelles et d'une croissance faible a notamment fragilisé une partie des classes moyennes. Pour réduire sensiblement le taux de pauvreté, une croissance plus forte en même temps que des politiques sociales actives et plus efficaces que par le passé seront nécessaires. La stratégie du gouvernement Lula de réduction de la pauvreté repose sur une conditionnalité accrue de l'aide au plan individuel et sur un ciblage plus fort de la politique de redistribution. Ceci pourra créer des tensions par rapport à la demande alternative de consolidation du système existant de sécurité sociale, centré sur les classes moyennes salariées.

in La Lettre du CEPII Publication date 2005-01
SGARD Jérôme
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Plus de trois ans après le défaut sur sa dette, l'État argentin propose un échange de titres qui se solderait pour les investisseurs par une perte d'environ 70% de leur mise. Quelle que soit l'issue de l'opération, l'affaire argentine illustre d'ores et déjà la fragilité de l'approche contractuelle du traitement des défauts. Face à la difficulté de coordination des investisseurs privés, les autorités argentines ont pu refuser toute négociation constructive et de bonne foi. Les moyens de résister à une telle stratégie non coopérative sont en effet limités : la menace de poursuite judiciaire a été surestimée et aucun arbitre ou censeur institutionnel n'a émergé, pouvant suppléer le FMI. L'absence d'interaction entre la procédure privée de renégociation des dettes et les instruments multilatéraux de gestion des crises financières réduit ainsi considérablement les moyens d'action du Fonds. Elle confirme sa marginalisation sur un enjeu central d' "architecture internationale". Au total, si l'approche contractuelle peut atteindre son objectif en cas de "petits" défauts, plusieurs accidents du type argentin pourraient aboutir à une situation d'impasse, appelant le retour à des méthodes plus institutionnalisées et plus politiques (...).

in Economic History Review Publication date 2017-05
BEUVE Jean
BROUSSEAU Eric
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French mercantilism is generally associated with absolutist policy-making subject to capture by rent-seeking interests. This article investigates how the Bureau du Commerce, a small state agency in charge of commerce and the supply side, handed out rents and privileges to private entrepreneurs. We coded how the Bureau investigated and decided all 267 voluntary submissions received between 1724 and 1744. It is shown that the Bureau’s formal, rule-based decision-making process could actually differentiate between alternate policy aims and target them consistently over time, with more or less powerful sets of rents. From this, a hierarchy of revealed policy preferences is derived. First comes technical innovation and diffusion, then local economic development; import substitution is only in the third position, followed by consumers’ welfare. Lastly, and in contrast to a long line of authors, it is shown that the production of luxury goods was not a significant or valued objective.

in Journal of Comparative Economics Publication date 2016-09
BROUSSEAU Eric
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The symposium brings together case studies that are all about reasonably successful experiments in institution building and policy making by interactions between public and private spheres. The cases deal with the provision of information enabling market to perform, law making, and the control of political discretion and public bureaus. Each in its own way, they show how agents have room for some reasoned choice, although eventually this room for choice is narrowed by the emergence of stabilized institutions that come to shape in a rather permanent way the environment within which they later operate. The common characteristic across these case studies is the non-Parliamentarian process through which process of experimentation, rationalization and institutionalization takes place.

Just as medieval municipal republics surrendered to national sovereigns in the past, incumbent states may be replaced in the future by an alternate, global public order. Citizens and merchants would obtain more equal rights, better market infrastructures, and a more efficient provision of public goods at all levels of government, from the local to the global. This proposition is supported by an agentbased, incentive-compatible model where individual rights—economic and political—are established within an ongoing bargain with rulers. Enfranchisement then shapes the autonomous dynamics of civil society and markets and, over time, allows for feedback of preferences into the core bargain on rights. Globalization results from a capacity to trade and associate that extends far beyond home jurisdictions, yet on the basis of differentiated franchises. In this representation, the world is anarchic, pluralistic, unequal, and growing. Although it is no longer state-centered, long-term change is driven by the attempts and failures of states to establish a more coherent normative infrastructure and to respond to new social demands. From this account, we derive four scenarios of global reordering, among which maximal integration would see the classical nation-state split into two parts: a decentralized, federal structure of government; and a unified legal order that would warrant equal rights and generalized open access throughout the world.

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