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  • PETROSKY-NADEAU Nicolas (10)
  • CHAPELLE Guillaume (6)
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A model is developed that allows for interaction between the labor market and the housing market. A job location has an associated commuting time that may affect the job acceptance decision. Obstacles to mobility, such as regulations in the housing market will affect the reservation strategy of workers. Thus, aggregate unemployment will depend, at least partly, on the functioning of the housing market. Data from the U.S. and E.U. reveals that individuals in the U.S. are about three times more likely to experience a change in residence within a given year. At the same time, unemployment in the E.U. is roughly twice that in the U.S. This paper seeks to understand, both qualitatively and quantitatively, how housing market frictions might affect the functioning of the labor market.

Publication date 2009-02
STANCANELLI Elena
RUPERT Peter
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A search model of the labor market is augmented to include commuting time to work. The theory posits that wages are positively related to commute distance, by a factor itself depending negatively on the bargaining power of workers. Since not all combinations of distance and wages are accepted, there is non-random selection of accepted job offers. We build on these ingredients to explore in the data the relationship between wages and commute time . We find that neglecting to account for this selection will bias downward the wage impact of commuting, and marginally affect the coefficients on education, age and gender. The correlation between the residuals of the selectivity equation and the distance equation is -0.70, showing the large impact of commute time on job acceptance decisions. We also use the theory to calculate the bargaining power of workers which largely varies depending on demographic groups: it appears to be much larger for men than that for women and that the bargaining power of women with oung children is essentially zero.

in 14ème congrès des économistes belges de langue française, 26 juillet 2000, Liège Publication date 2000
CROUX Christophe
WASMER Etienne
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L’analyse de données spatiales permet d’appréhender des phénomènes en général ignorés de l’analyse économique standard. Dans le cadre du marché du travail, en particulier, l’approche spatiale peut révéler l’importance de la concentration spatiale du chômage, les corrélations dans l’espace de la qualification de la force de travail, la propagation dans l’espace des chocs d’emplois, enfin les raisons possibles de la persistance d’un niveau de chômage élevé dans certains secteurs géographiques. Ce papier tente d’adresser ces questions en appliquant des techniques d’analyse spatiale à des données des 260 communes de la Wallonie. L’objectif est d’abord méthodologique et exploratoire : après une première partie descriptive utilisant les techniques d’analyse de données spatiales, on procède à l’estimation d’un modèle de chômage et d’offre de travail avec ou sans termes de corrélations spatiales. Les conclusions d’étape permettent d’éclairer le rôle de la mobilité du travail et des politiques intra-régionales.

Publication date 2002
PERELMAN Sergio
DE LA CROIX David
MAINQUET Christine
DOCQUIER Frédéric
WASMER Etienne
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France's 1998 implementation of the 35-hour workweek has been one of the greatest regulatory shocks on labor markets. Few studies evaluate the impact of this regulation because of a lack of identification strategies. For historical reasons due to the way Alsace-Moselle was returned to France in 1918, the implementation of France's 35-hour workweek was less stringent in that region than in the rest of the country, which is confirmed by double and triple differences. Yet it shows no significant difference in employment with the rest of France, which casts doubt on the effectiveness of this regulation.

We use a combination of ex-ante and ex-post evaluation methods to evaluate a major welfare policy implemented in France in 1989. The policy granted an allowance (the Revenu Minimum d'Insertion, RMI, of up to 45% of the French full time minimum wage) to every individual above age 25 and below a threshold household income. The ex-post evaluation relies on the specificity of the Eastern part of France. In Alsace-Moselle, since 1908 and during German occupancy, residents benefited from a very similar transfer system (called “Aide Sociale”). Our estimates, based on double and triple differences, show that the RMI policy was associated with: a 3% fall in employment (among unskilled workers 25-55 years old) , leading to an estimated loss of 328 000 jobs; a decline in the job-access rate; and a 5-month increase in the average duration of unemployment. We find considerably larger disincentive effects for single parents. In a second step, we build and calibrate a matching model with endogenous job search effort, using the difference-in-differences estimates. It predicts that, if a 38% implicit tax rate had been maintained as in the 2007 reform (RSA), instead of a 100% implicit tax rate due to the RMI, the increase in unemployment would have been approximately half of its actual value, and the increase in the duration of unemployment would have been limited to only 2.5 months.

In this paper, we describe the historical context of local laws in Alsace-Moselle, a region of France under the control of Germany between 1870 and 1918. We provide three examples of labor policies that can be evaluated thanks to this experience: welfare laws, regulation of working time and absenteism, as well as preliminary investigations of the e¤ect of those policies. We conclude in proposing additional examples of policy evaluations that could be based on a similar strategy.

Publication date 2003
THISSE Jacques-François
WASMER Etienne
ZENOU Yves
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D’entrée de jeu, trois remarques s’imposent. En premier lieu, les recherches effectuées au cours des deux dernières décennies ont permis de mieux comprendre la dimension économique des mécanismes d’exclusion, du moins tels qu’on les connaît dans les villes nord-américaines. En France, et plus généralement en Europe continentale, les données et études portant sur la composante économique de ces problèmes sont rares. En dépit de la richesse des travaux consacrés à ces sujets, peu connus des économistes français, l’impression prévaut que l’économie n’a rien à dire en la matière. Malgré l’absence de données précises sur la nature et l’intensité de la ségrégation dans les villes françaises, il est cependant possible d’énoncer un certain nombre de principes que devrait suivre une politique urbaine plus efficace. Sans nécessairement faire nôtres les propos de Karl Marx pour qui « Le pays qui est industriellement le plus avancé ne fait que montrer au pays moins développé l’image de l’avenir qui l’attend » (préface du Capital), nous pensons que cette opinion contient une part de vérité suffisante pour que nous ayons pas mal de choses à apprendre en étudiant la réalité économique et sociale des Etats-Unis (...).

Cette thèse analyse les principaux mécanismes du marché du logement en s’intéressant au rôle des contraintes foncières naturelles et réglementaires et à l’impact des politiques publiques. Le premier chapitre met en perspective le rôle de la terre au cours des derniers siècles en montrant que si l’importance de la terre a progressivement reculé jusqu’au milieu du XXe siècle, elle a été remplacée par l’importance croissante du foncier résidentiel. Le second chapitre tente d’estimer l’un des paramètres clé du marché du logement : l’élasticité prix. Il montre que ce concept recouvre deux notions différentes, l’une décrit la réaction des promoteurs suite à une augmentation des prix alors que la seconde décrit la croissance des prix de l’immobilier accompagnant le développement urbain. Il montre que les marchés de l’immobilier des aires urbaines françaises sont inélastiques. Le troisième chapitre analyse l’impact du dispositif Scellier sur les marchés locaux et montre que son impact quantitatif a été limité. Enfin le quatrième chapitre étudie l’effet d’éviction du logement privé par le logement social.

This book offers an integrated framework to study the theoretical and quantitative properties of economies with frictions in multiple markets. Building on analyses of markets with frictions by 2010 Nobel laureates Peter A. Diamond, Dale T. Mortensen, and Christopher A. Pissarides, which provided a new theoretical approach to search markets, the book applies this new paradigm to labor, finance, and goods markets. It shows, in particular, how frictions in different markets interact with each other. The book first covers the main developments in the analysis of the labor market in the presence of frictions, offering a systematic analysis of the dynamics of this environment and explaining the notion of macroeconomic volatility. Then, building on the generality and simplicity of the search analysis, the book adapts it to other markets, developing the tools and concepts to analyze friction in these markets. The book goes beyond the traditional general equilibrium analysis of markets, which is often frictionless. It begins with the standard analysis of a single market, and then sequentially integrates more markets into the analysis, progressing from labor to financial to goods markets. Along the way, the book provides a number of useful results and insights, including the existence of a direct link between search frictions and the degree of volatility in the economy. (Publisher's abstract)

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