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  • GAUTIER Erwan (9)
  • BARONE Carlo (6)
  • ROUX Sébastien (5)
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  • Article (16)
  • Working paper (11)
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Shared book reading (SBR) between parents and children is often regarded as a significant mediator of social inequalities in early skill development processes. We argue that socially biased gaps between parents in the awareness of the benefits of this activity for school success contribute to inequalities between children in access to this activity and in their language development. We test this hypothesis with a large-scale field experiment assessing the causal impact of an intervention targeting parents of pre-schoolers on both the frequency of SBR and the receptive vocabulary of children. Results indicate that low-educated parents are more reactive to this intervention, with significant effects on the language development of their children. We conclude that cognitive barriers and information gaps on the potential of informal learning activities at home fuel social inequalities in early childhood. At the same time, light-touch interventions removing these barriers are a cost-effective way of reducing these inequalities.

Publié en 2020-08 Collection Discussion Paper Series : 15142
D'ALBIS Hippolyte
GOUEDARD Pierre
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SLOW DOWN BEFORE YOU STOP: THE EFFECT OFTHE 2010 FRENCH PENSION REFORM ON OLDERTEACHERS' SICK LEAVESAbstractThis paper proposes an evaluation of the pre-retirement consequences of a reform of the Frenchpension system that increased the minimum legal retirement age. Our empirical strategy relies onthe comparison of two groups of cohorts. The control group consists of cohorts not affected by theincrease in the minimum legal retirement age while the treatment group consists of cohorts bornlater. Using a sample of 38,652 high-school teachers, we identify the effect of increasing theminimum retirement age on short sick leaves (i.e., of less than three months) by comparingprobabilities to take at least one sick leave during a schooling year before retirement across thetwo groups. Estimates of panel data models show that teachers affected by the reform have anincreased probability to take short sick leaves before retirement. This is mainly due to teacherswho decide to retire at the minimum legal retirement age, while those who continue to work abovethe minimum retirement age do not increase the frequency of their short sick leaves beforeretirement. This last result is predicted by a theoretical model that analyzes the optimal retirementchoice over the life-cycle, and it is confirmed by using an empirical strategy that distinguishesteachers according to their retirement age.

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This study presents the results of a randomized controlled trial assessing the impact of a shared-book reading (SBR) intervention that targeted children aged 4 living in socially mixed neighborhoods of the city of Paris. We selected a large, random sample of families and provided parents with free books, information on the benefits of SBR and tips for effective reading practices. We measured SBR frequency and children’s vocabulary before and after this intervention, among treated and control children. The intervention had a large effect on SBR frequency. At the pre-test, SBR on a daily basis involved 41.2% of the families, and the treatment fostered this practice by 8 percentage points. SBR on a weekly basis was fostered by 14 percentage points. The intervention fostered SBR frequency only in low-educated households. This equalising impact is an important finding against the background of previous research reporting that disadvantaged families tend to benefit less from SBR programs. The intervention also significantly enhanced children’s language skills measured with standardized tests of receptive vocabulary. The effect size for the main treatment effect ranges from 0.12 at the post-test to 0.16 at the follow-up. Treatment effects are persistent six months after the end of the intervention. Children from low-educated and immigrant families improved their vocabulary as much as those from high-educated, native families. Moreover, the persisting positive impacts on vocabulary growth detected at the follow-up also involve children from disadvantaged families. Furthermore, these children more often attend schools with lower educational resources. It is therefore encouraging that the intervention has strong impacts in schools with initially low involvement in reading-related activities and with low educational resources.

Publié en 2020-01 Collection Dscussion Paper Series : 12922
JACQUEMET Nicolas
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This working-paper describes the main impact evaluation methods, both experimental and quasi-experimental, and the statistical model underlying them. Some of the most important methodological advances to have recently been put forward in this field of research are presented. We focus not only on the need to pay particular attention to the accuracy of the estimated effects, but also on the requirement to replicate assessments, carried out by experimentation or quasi-experimentation, in order to distinguish false positives from proven effects

in Economie et statistique Publié en 2019-12
JACQUEMET Nicolas
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This paper describes, in a non-technical way, the main impact evaluation methods, both experimental and quasi-experimental, and the statistical model underlying them. In the first part, we provide a brief survey of the papers making use of those methods that have been published by the journal Economie et Statistique / Economics and Statistics over the past fifteen years. In the second part, some of the most important methodological advances to have recently been put forward in this field of research are presented. To finish, we focus not only on the need to pay particular attention to the accuracy of the estimated effects, but also on the requirement to replicate evaluations, carried out by experimentation or quasi-experimentation, in order to distinguish false positives from proven effects.

Interventions that encourage parents to read with their pre-school aged children can be a cost-effective way to boost early childhood development and reduce educational inequalities. But socioeconomic and cultural barriers can hinder the efficacy of such interventions, and recent impact evaluations question their value. This column looks at a large-scale experiment that provided parents of pre-schoolers with books as well as materials on the benefits of shared reading. It finds that the accessibility of the information provided played a key role in the intervention’s success.

in Economie et statistique Publié en 2019-12
JACQUEMET Nicolas
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Cet article décrit de manière non technique les principales méthodes d’évaluation d’impact, expérimentales et quasi-expérimentales, et le modèle statistique qui les sous-tend. Sont ensuite recensés les articles utilisant ces méthodes que la revue Economie et statistique / Economics and Statistics a publiés durant ces quinze dernières années. Dans une seconde partie sont présentées certaines des avancées méthodologiques les plus importantes récemment proposées dans ce champ de recherche. Pour finir, l’accent est mis sur la nécessité d’être particulièrement attentif à la précision des effets estimés, mais aussi sur l’obligation de répliquer les évaluations, réalisées par expérimentation ou quasi-expérimentation, en vue de distinguer les faux-positifs des effets avérés.

En éducation, les effets de pairs résultent des différents types d’interactions entre élèves, au sein d’une même classe ou d’un même établissement. Toutefois, caractériser la nature et mesurer l’ampleur de ces interactions pose des problèmes méthodologiques substantiels. Cet article vise à présenter les difficultés relatives à la mesure des effets de pairs en éducation, ainsi que les résultats des recherches qui leur ont été consacrées dans l’enseignement primaire et secondaire. Au sein d’un établissement, les élèves sont influencés par la composition socio-économique et le niveau scolaire de leurs pairs. Les élèves de milieu défavorisé, ou en difficulté scolaire, y sont en général plus sensibles. En raison de tels effets, la ségrégation entre et au sein des établissements est susceptible d’aggraver les inégalités scolaires. Les résultats des recherches relatives aux effets de pairs ne sont toutefois pas convergents

Le calcul socioéconomique est utilisé depuis longtemps en France pour évaluer les projets d’infrastructures de transport. Depuis 2013, il est généralisé à l’ensemble des investissements publics civils d’un montant supérieur à 20 millions d’euros. Dans quelle mesure peut-on l’étendre aux politiques comptabilisées en dépenses de fonctionnement mais assimilables à un investissement « social » ? On entend par investissement social l’ensemble des mesures qui conduisent à accroître le capital humain de leurs bénéficiaires. Le concept peut être appliqué à des politiques très différentes, par exemple l’accueil des jeunes enfants, la réduction de la taille des classes, la lutte contre le décrochage scolaire, la garantie jeunes, l’accompagnement et la formation des demandeurs d’emploi ou l’accès à une couverture santé. L’application du calcul socioéconomique à l’investissement social, aujourd’hui très peu répandue, serait d’autant plus utile que ces politiques peuvent être rapidement reconfigurées, en fonction des résultats d’évaluation, ce qui n’est pas le cas pour un investissement public physique (une école, un hôpital, une route, une prison, etc.).

Le calcul socioéconomique est utilisé depuis longtemps en France pour évaluer les projets d’infrastructures de transport. Depuis 2013, il est généralisé à l’ensemble des investissements publics civils d’un montant supérieur à 20 millions d’euros. Dans quelle mesure peut-on l’étendre aux politiques comptabilisées en dépenses de fonctionnement mais assimilables à un investissement « social » ?

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