Coauthor
  • WEILER Florian (4)
  • MOLENAERS Nadia (2)
  • MOHAMED Ibrahim (1)
  • DORNAN Matthew (1)
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  • Article (6)
  • Web site contribution (2)
  • Book (1)
  • Working paper (1)
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At the 2009 Copenhagen Climate Summit, donors pledged to ‘jointly mobilize’ $100 billion/year for climate finance by 2020. The Copenhagen Accord and other agreements do not specify who should provide how much of this collective target beyond the general principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR&RC), according to which the more responsible a country is for climate change and/or the more capable of paying, the more climate finance it should provide. Two additional burden-sharing mechanisms may explain how much climate finance donors provide: willingness to pay or ‘greenness’ and self-interest. These mechanisms are tested to determine which best explains current patterns in climate finance commitments by analysing bilateral climate aid. There is evidence for capability—richer countries provide more climate aid. In contrast, responsibility, greenness or self-interest do not induce more climate aid commitments. Better understanding the drivers of climate aid helps to mobilize more climate finance, and advances understanding of (sectoral) aid allocation.

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Small Island Developing States (SIDS) share a common vulnerability to climate change. Adaptation to climate change and variability is urgently needed yet, while some is already occurring in SIDS, research on the nature and efficacy of adaptation across SIDS is fragmentary. In this article, we systematically review academic literature to identify where adaptation in SIDS is documented; what type of adaptation strategies are taken, and in response to which climate change impacts; and the extent to which this adaptation has been judged as successful. Our analysis indicates that much adaptation research is concentrated on the Pacific, on independent island states, and on core areas within SIDS. Research documents a wide array of adaptation strategies across SIDS, notably structural or physical and behavioral changes. Yet, evaluation of concrete adaptation interventions is lacking; it thus remains unclear to what extent documented adaptation effectively and sustainably reduces SIDS’ vulnerability and increases their resilience.

in Site du CERI Publication date 2019-01-22
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Carola Klöck (born Betzold) joined CERI in September 2018 as Assistant professor in political science. Carola’s research is located at the interface of political science, human geography and development studies, and examines adaptation to climate change, and the politics of climate change more generally. Interview by Corinne Deloy.

At the 2009 Copenhagen Climate Summit, it was decided that by 2020, donors should rally up not less than US$100 billion per year for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing countries. How much each donor should contribute to that annual target remains an open question, however. Dividing that ‘burden’ in equal parts would be rather unfair. Some countries are bigger and/or richer, but more importantly,some carry more responsibility for climate change than others in terms of their share in greenhouse gas emissions.

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Small Islands are often seen as “canaries in the coalmine” in the context of climate change. Fragile ecosystems are sensitive to changes in temperature, rainfall patterns and sea-level rise, while island societies might have insufficient means to cope with climate change impacts. While science provides a robust global “big” picture on climate change and adaptation in general, data at the local scale is still lacking. Furthermore, knowledge on successful (as well as failed) adaptation from one island rarely reaches other islands or island regions. Therefore, Michael Fink and Carola Klöck organised a workshop covering the three Island Regions Pacific, Caribbean, and Indian Ocean titled “Dealing with Climate Change on Small Islands – Towards Effective and Sustainable Adaptation?”. The workshop took place from 25–27 July 2018 at Herrenhausen Palace, Hannover, Germany and received financial support from the Volkswagen Foundation and organizational assistance from Hellena Debelts. Almost 40 scientists and practitioners attended. A small selection of the rich discussions and diverse presentations from the workshop are presented in this brief report.

Publication date 2018
KLOECK Carola
WEILER Florian
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This book examines development aid for climate change adaptation. Increasing amounts of aid are used to help developing countries adapt to climate change. The authors seek to discover how this aid is distributed and what constitutes the patterns of adaptation-aid giving. Does it help vulnerable countries, as donors promise, or does it help donors achieve economic and political gains? Set against the backdrop of international climate change negotiations and the aid allocation literature, Betzold and Weiler’s empirical analysis proceeds in three steps: firstly they assess adaptation aid as reported by the OECD, then statistically examine patterns in adaptation aid allocation, and finally qualitatively investigate adaptation aid in three large climate donors: Germany, Sweden and the United Kingdom. With its mixed-method research design and comprehensive data, this work provides a unique, state-of-the-art analysis of adaptation aid as a new stream of development aid.

in World Development Publication date 2018-04
KLOECK Carola
DORNAN Matthew
WEILER Florian
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Developed countries provide increasing amounts of aid to assist developing countries adapt to the impacts of climate change. How do they distribute this aid? While donors agreed to prioritise “particularly vulnerable” countries, we know from the general aid allocation literature that donors (also) use aid as a foreign policy tool to promote their own economic and political goals. In this paper, we analyse data on bilateral adaptation aid from 2010 through 2015 to assess to what extent adaptation aid is provided in response to recipient need (that is, vulnerability to climate change impacts) as opposed to recipient merit (that is, good governance) and donors’ interests. In contrast to previous research, we find that donors partly take into account vulnerability to climate change. Countries that are physically more exposed to climate change tend to be more likely to receive some adaptation aid and also receive more adaptation aid per capita, as do poorer countries, small island developing states and—to a lesser extent—least developed countries. Countries with lower adaptive capacity, however, do not receive more adaptation aid; instead, donors reward well-governed countries with adaptation aid as well as use adaptation aid to promote their own economic interests. Furthermore, adaptation aid flows very closely follow general development aid flows. The extent to which adaptation aid is new and additional thus remains unclear.

in Regional Environmental Change Publication date 2017-04
KLOECK Carola
MOHAMED Ibrahim
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Many coasts are eroding. In the Comoros, as in many other small island developing states (SIDS), communities frequently respond to coastal erosion by building seawalls—yet seawalls and other coastal defence structure are controversial, especially in a SIDS context, where they typically are poorly designed and constructed and thus tend to increase rather decrease erosion and are often unable to prevent flooding. Through an exploratory qualitative case study of Grande Comore, the main island of the Comoros (West Indian Ocean), we compare and contrast how local stakeholders, national elites and donors understand coastal erosion and flooding in the context of a changing climate and how they experience and perceive seawalls as a response measure. Our analysis suggests that although stakeholders are aware of different drivers of coastal erosion and flooding, including sand mining, seawalls are a frequent and customary response to coastal erosion and flooding. Little is known about their disadvantages or alternative response measures, especially among local community members. Further, a lack of capacity and resources leads not only to poorly designed and constructed seawalls but also to difficulties in enforcing rules and regulations such as bans on sand mining. From our exploratory study, three conclusions emerge: (1) local drivers of coastal erosion and flooding are more visible than global climate change while funding is more readily available for adaptation to climate change; (2) a mix of context and site-specific measures would be needed to adequately respond to coastal erosion and flooding; and (3) further information and knowledge about the extent and causes of coastal erosion and flooding as well as about the effects of different response measures would be needed to allow such context and site-specific measures.

Après des températures dépassant les 40°C l’été dernier et qui restent élevées en ce mois de novembre 2018, le thème du changement climatique est sur toutes les lèvres. Il n'en est pas de même de la politique internationale du climat, bien que le sommet de Katowice, qui aura lieu début décembre, soit déjà la troisième rencontre de haut niveau à être organisée cette année autour de ce sujet...

in Climatic Change Publication date 2015-12
KLOECK Carola
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Small island developing states (SIDS) are among the first and worst affected by climate change. SIDS are thus also among the first to adapt, and as ‘early adaptors’ can provide key lessons for adaptation efforts elsewhere. This article reviews the growing literature on climate change, adaptation and small island states. It first discusses migration – which increasingly is seen as part of adaptation rather than a failure to adapt. Mobility has long been part of island life, and remittances can for example fund adaptation measures back home. Yet, adaptation in situ is not as forthcoming as would be necessary. The article identifies different barriers to effective adaptation, and discusses them under three distinct but interrelated categories: perceptions and awareness, institutions, and (lack of) resources. For effective, sustainable and successful adaptation, we need to overcome these barriers, and in particular provide information and resources to the local level. With appropriate information and resources, island communities can take and implement informed decisions and successfully adapt to a changing climate – as they have adjusted to social and environmental changes in the past.

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