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  • RUEDA Valeria (5)
  • HERVÉ Nicolas (4)
  • VIAUD Marie-Luce (4)
  • GADENNE Lucie (3)
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  • Working paper (11)
  • Article (8)
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Publication date 2017-03
HERVÉ Nicolas
VIAUD Marie-Luce
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Le développement de l'information sur Internet conduit-il au règne du copié-collé, au détriment de l'information de qualité ? Peut-on inventer de nouveaux modèles économiques pour les médias permettant de tirer le meilleur parti des nouvelles technologies ? Cet ouvrage apporte de nouvelles réponses à ces questions, en conjuguant les outils du big data, du machine learning et de l'économie. Il se fonde sur la construction et l'analyse d'une base de données unique : l'intégralité du contenu produit en ligne par les médias d'information en France sur une année (2013), qu'il s'agisse de la presse écrite, de la télévision, de la radio, des pure internet players ou encore de l'AFP. En appliquant leur algorithme de détection de copie, les auteurs montrent que, dans le cas des actualités "chaudes", 64% de l'information publiée en ligne correspond à du copié-collé pur et simple, créant un niveau d'homogénéité insoupçonné. Ce recours croissant au copié-collé, combiné à une vitesse de propagation extrêmement élevée de l'information en ligne, risque de tuer à terme les incitations des médias à produire de l'information originale. Au-delà de ces constats, les auteurs proposent des solutions économiques et juridiques pour lutter contre la dévalorisation du travail journalistique. II en va de notre démocratie : Internet va-t-il demeurer une chance unique de mieux informer les citoyens ou peut-il demain se transformer en tombeau de l'information ? (Résumé de l'éditeur)

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This paper puts the recent evolution of tax revenues in developing countries in historical perspective. Using a novel dataset on total and trade tax revenues we compare the fiscal cost of trade liberalization in developing countries and in today's rich countries at earlier stages of development. We find that trade liberalization episodes led to larger and longer- lived decreases in total tax revenues in developing countries since the 1970s than in rich countries in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The fall in total tax revenues lasts more than ten years in half the developing countries in our sample.

in Explorations in Economic History Publication date 2018-08
GADENNE Lucie
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This article examines the impact of trade liberalization on government revenues. Using a new dataset on tax revenues for 130 countries between 1792 and 2006, we identify ninety-nine episodes of trade liberalization defined as a large fall in trade tax revenues not accompanied by a decrease in trade. Seven took place before World War One, seven in the interwar period, eighteen in the Bretton Woods period and the remainder after 1970. We examine the extent to which countries were able to recover the tax revenues lost by liberalizing trade by using other sources of revenue. We find that historical (pre-1970) trade liberalization episodes were unlikely to be accompanied by decreases in tax revenues, especially during the Bretton Woods era. In the recent period however, over 40% of the developing countries in our sample experience a fall in total tax revenues that lasts more than ten years after an episode of trade liberalization. Overall, trade liberalization led to larger and longer-lived declines in tax revenues in developing countries since 1970 than in today’s rich countries in the 19th and 20th centuries. Results are similar when we consider government expenditures, suggesting decreases in trade tax revenues negatively affect governments’ capacity to provide public services in many developing countries.

in European Economic Review Publication date 2016-07
AGHION Philippe
AKCIGIT Ufuk
KERR William R
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We build an endogenous growth model to analyze the relationships between taxation, corruption, and economic growth. Entrepreneurs lie at the center of the model and face disincentive effects from taxation but acquire positive benefits from public infrastructure. Political corruption governs the efficiency with which tax revenues are translated into infrastructure. The model predicts an inverted-U relationship between taxation and growth, with corruption reducing the optimal taxation level. We find evidence consistent with these predictions and the entrepreneurial channel using data from the Longitudinal Business Database of the US Census Bureau. The marginal effect of taxation for growth for a state at the 10th or 25th percentile of corruption is significantly positive; on the other hand, the marginal effects of taxation for growth for a state at the 90th percentile of corruption are much lower across the board. We make progress towards causality through Granger-style tests and by considering periphery counties where effective tax policy is largely driven by bordering states. Finally, we calibrate our model and find that the calibrated taxation rate of 37% is fairly close to the model׳s estimated welfare maximizing taxation rate of 42%. Reducing corruption provides the largest potential impact for welfare gain through its impact on the uses of tax revenues.

in The Long Economic and Political Shadow of History, Volume 2 Publication date 2017-02
RUEDA Valeria
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This paper investigates the impact of increased media competition on the quantity and quality of news provided and, ultimately, on political participation. Drawing upon existing literature on vertical product differentiation, I explore the conditions under which an increase in the number of newspapers can decrease both the quantity and quality of news provided. I build a new county-level panel dataset of local newspaper presence, newspapers' newsrooms, costs and revenues and political turnout in France, from 1944 to 2014. I estimate the effect of newspaper entry by comparing counties that experience entry to similar counties in the same years that do not. Both sets of counties exhibit similar trends prior to newspaper entry, but those with entry experience substantial declines in the average number of journalists (business-stealing effect). An increased number of newspapers is also associated with fewer articles and less hard news provision. These effects are stronger in counties with more homogeneous populations, as predicted by my simple theoretical framework, whereas there is little impact in counties with more heterogeneous populations. Newspaper entry, and the associated decline in information provision, is ultimately found to decrease voter turnout at local elections.

Publication date 2017-05
HERVÉ Nicolas
VIAUD Marie-Luce
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This paper documents the extent of copying and estimates the returns to originality in online news production. We build a unique dataset combining all the online content produced by the universe of news media (newspaper, television, radio, pure online media, and a news agency) in France during the year 2013 with new micro audience data. We develop a topic detection algorithm that identifies each news event, trace the timeline of each story and study news propagation. We show that one quarter of the news stories are reproduced online in less than 4 minutes. High reactivity comes with verbatim copying. We find that only 32.6% of the online content is original. The negative impact of copying on newsgathering incentives might however be counterbalanced by reputation effects. By using media-level daily audience and article-level Facebook shares, we show that original content represents 57.8% of online news consumption. Reputation mechanisms actually appear to solve about 40% of the copyright violation problem.

Publication date 2015-01
ANGELUCCI Charles
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This paper puts the recent evolution of tax revenues in developing countries in historical perspective. Using a novel dataset on total and trade tax revenues we compare the fiscal cost of trade liberalization in developing countries and in today's rich countries at earlier stages of development. We find that trade liberalization episodes led to larger and longer- lived decreases in total tax revenues in developing countries since the 1970s than in rich countries in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The fall in total tax revenues lasts more than ten years in half the developing countries in our sample.

in Sciences Po LIEPP Policy Brief Publication date 2017-12
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Qui possède les médias ? Il s’avère extraordinairement difficile de répondre à cette question simple. En France, l’ordonnance du 26 août 1944 du Conseil National de la Résistance rendait obligatoire – entre de multiples autres règles – la publication sur chaque exemplaire de journaux du nom des actionnaires et de leur profession. Ces règles n’ont, de fait, jamais été appliquées. Il est plus important que jamais d’améliorer les connaissances de la structure de l’actionnariat des médias d’information politique et générale. L’objectif de cette recherche est de mettre à jour, pour l’ensemble des médias d’information, la liste de leurs actionnaires ainsi que le secteur d’activité de ces derniers. Ce Policy Brief se concentre sur les cas de la France et de l’Espagne. Pour ces derniers, nous montrons que l’actionnariat des médias d’information se caractérise par sa complexité et son manque de transparence. De plus, une large part des actionnaires privés des médias tire l’essentiel de leurs ressources d’activités financières et d’assurance. En France, 51% des actionnaires des médias sont dans ce cas ; ils sont ainsi près de trois fois plus nombreux que les actionnaires issus du secteur de l’information et de la communication (18%). Au-delà de l’élargissement à d’autres pays, la prochaine étape logique de cette recherche consistera à mesurer l’impact de la structure de l’actionnariat sur la couverture médiatique.

in Industrial Policy and Economic Transformation in Africa Publication date 2015-10
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This article questions the relevance of the different measures of policy performance that are currently used by international organizations to allocate Official Development Assistance (ODA). It evaluates more especially the pertinence of the World Bank’s Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) and of the various alternatives that have been proposed in the literature. It suggests a new way of assessing aid effectiveness. Measuring policy performance is of particular importance: ODA represents a limited but needed resource for developing countries. Finding criteria to allocate it selectively is thus of great concern for donors.

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