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in Conventions and structures in economic organization: Markets, networks, and hierarchies Sous la direction de LAZEGA Emmanuel Publié en 2002
FAVEREAU Olivier
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One way to understand the notion of Morphogenesis Unbound is to focus on the meso level of society, i.e. to look at society as an ‘organizational society’ and to think about the co-evolution of structure, agency and culture – the three dimensions of Archer’s sociology, analytically speaking – in that context. This co-evolutionary vision happens to be very close to the research program of neo-structural sociology. To illustrate this insight, one neo-structural method, multilevel network analysis through linked design, is applied to a set of empirical data so as to propose a network translation of Morphogenesis Unbound and observe its outcome. This chapter reports results in which actors create new relationships beyond the boundaries of the organization with which they are affiliated, thus reshaping/expanding their own personal opportunity structure beyond the limitations imposed upon them by pre-existing structures. Half the population of the innovators observed (here: highly competitive scientists) deploy ‘independentist’ strategies, i.e. all the new personal ties that they develop in their network among the elite of colleagues of their profession are beyond the constraining perimeter predefined by their organization’s inter-organizational network. The kind of organization that they might create would not establish inter-organizational ties with their current organization. Over time, measurements suggest that this independence takes them close to Nowhere in terms of further achievements. Slightly more pedestrian forms of Morphogenesis, i.e. perhaps less Unbound, based on a relational strategy called here ‘individualist’, in which actors keep a strong foot in the organization in which they are affiliated so as to use its resources to create a new set of ties – and eventually a new organization – outside their current organization’s perimeter, seem to be of a more rewarding kind of networks to Somewhere closer to the “prizes [that] go to those who will explore and can manipulate contingent cultural compatibilities to their advantage” (Archer 2012). In this latter case, even if some of the opportunities that they could create for themselves are hoarded by their current organization (or boss). Such neo-structural measurements of Morphogenesis are used to start thinking about situations in which the two generative mechanisms identified by Archer (2012), competition and opportunity, coexist; as differentiated from the situations in which the latter would replace the former. Indeed creating new ties with heterogeneous actors, beyond one’s current position and sometimes even new kinds of organizations, is a highly cultural form of agency. Breiger’s notion of ‘weak culture’ helps speculate about actors’ capacity to reshape opportunity structures by reaching heterogeneous alters in spite of resistance from a rather stable, change-averse, tightly-connected organizational society promoting ordinary incremental innovation that will not challenge pre-existing entrenched interests.

in De Taylor à aujourd'hui : 100 ans d'histoire des courants de la théorie des organisations Publié en 2001-01
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Ce chapitre n'a pas de résumé.

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Cet article étudie les relations de conseil dans un cabinet américain d'avocats d'affaires. On y montre l'existence de normes régulant l'échange de cette ressource, normes étroitement liées à la structure formelle du cabinet. Une analyse du réseau constitué par ces relations permet de dégager la structure sociale ou informelle de ce système d'échange. Cette dernière montre que les acteurs en concurrence dans ce système (pour des ressources comme la main-d'oeuvre, les clients, le prestige, le statut d'associé) gèrent les contraintes imposées par les règles d'échange en jouant avec elles de manière locale et limitée. Selon leur position dans cette structure, ces jeux donnent ou non aux membres l'occasion de consulter des acteurs auxquels d'autres n'accèdent pas directement. Ceci donne à certains plus qu'à d'autres la possibilité de tirer profit de l'équilibre fragile entre concurrence et coopération qui s'établit dans un système social composé d' « associés-rivaux condamnés à vivre ensemble ».

in economic sociology_the european electronic newsletter Publié en 2018
COMET Catherine
DELARRE Sébastien
ELOIRE Fabien
FAVRE Guillaume
MOUNIER Lise
MONTES-LIHN Jaime
OUBENAL Mohamed
PENALVA-ICHER Elise
PIÑA-STRANGER Alvaro
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This short presentation is a “go to” summary providing interested readers with indications of our development of this neo-structural economic sociology. The notion of a social discipline that is perceived as legitimate by members of a social milieu is an important notion for understanding the contemporary form of cooperation between competitors. This form of cooperation relies on two dimensions of the very general notion of social discipline. A first dimension is located at the individual level and can be observed in the relational and symbolic work previously discussed. Actors are equipped with a social rationality (Lazega, 1992), thanks to which they design common projects and invest in relationships to manage their interdependencies via multiplex social exchange. The second dimension of the notion of social discipline exists at the collective level, although it is also endogenized by individual members. We refer to this second dimension as relational infrastructures. These infrastructures include horizontal and vertical differentiations in the social milieux of interdependent entrepreneurs. Horizontal differentiations correspond to systems of niches and vertical differentiations to heterogeneous forms of status. Relational infrastructures are crucial for the deployment and steering of key social processes usually associated with collective action among interdependent peers. We focus on such processes because they can help actors in managing the dilemmas of their collective actions: collective learning and socialization, bounded solidarity and exclusions, social control and conflict resolution, regulation and institutionalization. Our methodological contribution offers models of such processes using socio-economic network analyses mixed with other methods.

in Social Networks Publié en 2016-05
BAR-HEN Avner
BARBILLON Pierre
DONNET Sophie
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This paper looks at the effect of identifying alters as direct competitors on their selection as advisors. We differentiate between two kinds of competition: cut-throat vs friendly. We argue that, unlike cut-throat competition, friendly competition makes collective learning possible as a social process: when knowledge is built in interactions that are able to mitigate the negative effects of status competition and take place in homophilous social niches; and when the quality of this knowledge is guaranteed by members with epistemic status in these niches. Social niches and status facilitate advice seeking and collective learning because advice seeking between direct competitors is not obvious even when members have a common interest in sharing advice – a learning-related dilemma of collective action. We apply this reasoning to a network dataset combining identification of direct competitors and selection of advisors among the elite of cancer researchers in France. We use a procedure of multiplex stochastic block-modeling designed by Barbillon et al. (2015) to measure the effect of these identifications of direct competitors on the structure of the advice network. Results obtained with this dataset support our theory.

in Social Networks Publié en 2008-05
JOURDA Marie-Thérèse
MOUNIER Lise
STOFER Rafaël
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This article contributes to the study of “duality” [Breiger, R., 1974. The duality of persons and groups. Social Forces 53, 181–190] in social life. Our study explores multi-level networks of superposed and partially connected interdependencies, the first being inter-organizational, the second inter-individual. We propose a method of structural linked design as an articulation for these levels. First, we examine separately the complete networks at each level. Second, we combine the two networks in relation to one another using systematic information about the membership of each individual in the first network (inter-individual) to one of the organizations in the second network (inter-organizational), as in bipartite networks. This dual positioning, or the linked design approach, is carried out in an empirical study examining performance variations within the “elite” of French cancer researchers in 1999. By looking at measures of centrality, we identify the actors that these top researchers consider as central or peripheral at the inter-individual level (the big and the little fish among the elite), and the laboratories that the research directors consider as central or peripheral at the inter-organizational level (the big and the little ponds among all the laboratories conducting cancer research in France at that time). In addition to the rather trivial report of the competitive advantage of big fish in big ponds (particularly because of the advantage of size for laboratories in this field), we use measurements of scientific performance to identify “catching up” strategies that the smallest fish use in this system. We suggest that this method offers new insights into the duality and multi-level dimension of complex systems of interdependencies, and also into the ways in which actors manage these interdependencies. We believe that it adds a new dimension to the sociological exploration of the determinants of performance, of meso-level phenomena such as opportunity structures and institutional change, or of macro-level phenomena such as social inequalities.

Publié en 1999
LAZEGA Emmanuel
MOUNIER Lise
STOFER Rafaël
TRIPIER Alain
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Rapport à l’Association pour la Recherche sur le Cancer.

in Social Networks Publié en 2015
WANG Peng
ROBINS Garry
PATTISON Philippa
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Social selection models (SSMs) incorporate nodal attributes as explanatory covariates for modelling network ties (Robins et al., 2001). The underlying assumption is that the social processes represented by the graph configurations without attributes are not homogenous, and the network heterogeneity maybe captured by nodal level exogenous covariates. In this article, we propose SSMs for multilevel networks as extensions to exponential random graph models (ERGMs) for multilevel networks (Wang et al., 2013). We categorize the proposed model configurations by their similarities in interpretations arising from complex dependencies among ties within and across levels as well as the different types of nodal attributes. The features of the proposed models are illustrated using a network data set collected among French elite cancer researchers and their affiliated laboratories with attribute information about both researchers and laboratories (0070 and 0075). Comparisons between the models with and without nodal attributes highlight the importance of attribute effects across levels, where the attributes of nodes at one level affect the network structure at the other level.

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