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in Actes des 23èmes Journées francophones d'Ingénierie des Connaissances (IC 2012) Publication date 2012-06-25
DECLERCK Gunnar
AIMÉ Xavier
CHARLET Jean
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Ce texte se propose de discuter l'idée que les ontologies fondationnelles sont utiles, voire nécessaires, au bon fonctionnement des systèmes de traitement de contenus, en particulier à leur interopérabilité sémantique. Après un rappel des principales caractéristiques des ontologies, nous proposerons une liste des grandes fonctions aujourd'hui attribuées ou au moins attendues des OF, pour en discuter ensuite le bien-fondé. Nous montrerons que la possibilité de réaliser une ontologie intégrant des primitives et définitions formelles suffisamment générales et génériques (universelles) pour décrire la sémantique des concepts de domaines spécialisés du savoir est loin d'être acquise ; et que (ii) même si une telle ontologie s'avérait réalisable, il n'est pas certain qu'elle permettrait d'assurer l'IS entre systèmes, c'est-à-dire un échange de données en préservant le sens.

in Revue française de science politique Publication date 2015-10
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Une troisième génération de sciences sociales doit voir le jour pour assumer la spécificité du monde de don-nées et de traces créées par les réseaux numériques, sans se contenter de prolonger les acquis des sciences de la « société » et de l'« opinion ». Ces entités ont été construites dans une époque précise dont la généa-logie est restituée pour être comparée avec le travail des agences qui exploitent les traces numériques et qui peuvent produire toute la réflexivité nécessaire en devenant prédictives. Il est proposé de penser les traces numériques en tant que « répliques » que les sciences sociales doivent suivre avec des méthodes adaptées car elles constituent désormais un nouveau continent du social.

in Scientometrics Publication date 2017-11
RAINHO BRÁS Oriana
DAVID Leonor
ARRISCADO NUNES João
CARDOSO Fátima
JERÓNIMO Carmen
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This paper analyses the developmental dynamics of oncology research in Portugal during the second half of the twentieth century and early twenty first century. Grounding its conclusions in a scientometric analysis of a database of publications covering the period 1976–2015, the paper shows how the expansion of oncology research from the end of the 1990s through the 2000s is closely related to science and technology policy decisions in the country. The main actors of the institutional evolution of the field are public organizations, both hospital and academia/research-based, frequently working together. Portuguese oncology research focused especially on organ-based cancers, underlining the strong link between the laboratory and the clinic. Accordingly, translational research is a major trend in oncology research, as evidenced by the analysis of publications in major journals and inter-citation maps. Net...

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France started to compile statistics about its trade in 1716. The "Bureau de la Balance du Commerce" (Balance of Trade's Office) centralized local reports of imports/exports by commodities produced by french tax regions. Many statistical manuscript volumes produced by this process have been preserved in French archives. This communication will relate how and why we used network technologies to create a research instrument based on the transcriptions of those archives in the TOFLIT18 research project. Our corpus composed of more than 500k yearly trade transactions of one commodity between a French local tax region or a foreign country between 1718 and 1838. We used a graph database to modelize it as a trade network where trade flows are edges between trade partners. We will explain why we had to design a classification system to reduce the heterogeneity of the commodity names and how such a system introduce the need for hyperedges. Our research instruments aiming at providing exploratory data analysis means to researchers, we will present the web application we've built on top of the neo4j database using JavaScript technologies (Decypher, Express, React, Baobab, SigmaJS). We will finally show how graph model was not only a convenient way to store and query our data but also a poweful visual object to explore trade geographical structures and trade products' specialization patterns. Project funded by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (TOFLIT18)

in Poetics Publication date 2018-02
BEARMAN Peter
BRANDT Philipp
HOFFMAN Mark Anthony
NEWTON Key, Department Of History
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Using co-occurrence methods for identifying semantic structure in texts, we first describe the structure of the Protestant Bible, focusing on the ways in which contents of the Bible are organized in both the New and Old Testaments. We introduce a strategy for capturing the co-occurrence of nouns and verbs in windows defined by verses that progressively move across the text, from start to finish in a manner similar to reading. We then consider how Dissenters and Conformists used the Bible by locating Biblical verse in sermons printed in England during the period from 1660 to 1780. We describe how chapters are linked by themes over time, by dissenting and conformist religious communities, and map Dissenter and Conformist uses of the Bible onto its semantic structure. We show that it is possible to induce a semantic network image of the Bible, that this structure serves as a skeletal frame for interpretation, thereby highlighting different contents as central to denominations’ religious inspirations and concerns.

in L'ère post-média. Humanités digitales et cultures numériques Publication date 2012
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Depuis quelques années, les sciences sociales se retrouvent dans une situation tout à fait nouvelle. Relativement jeunes et encore précairement établies, ces sciences étaient loin de se doter des énormes machines à données des sciences naturelles. Contrairement aux physiciens jonglant avec des milliards de particules dans leurs accélérateurs ou aux biologistes cultivant des millions de microbes sous leurs microscopes, les sociologues ne pouvaient suivre que quelques centaines d’êtres humains et étaient condamnés à deviner la forme des phénomènes collectifs par ces aperçus partiels (...).

in Sociológica Publication date 2012
GUIDO Daniele
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ANTA or Actor-‐Network Analyzer is a simple piece of software developed at Sciences Po médialab to offer social researchers a simple text-‐analysis tool attuned with the theoretical tenets of actor-‐network theory. Striving to make actor-‐network theory compatible with modern text-‐analysis, we have learned much about both. In this paper we’ll discuss our adventure in ANT and text-‐analysis while describing the basic functions of ANTA and providing examples of its usage.

In the last few years, a spirit has been haunting our academic and popular culture — the spirit of networks. Throughout social as well as natural sciences, more and more phenomena have come to be conceived as networks. Telecommunication networks, neural networks, social networks, epigenetic networks, ecological and economic networks , the very fabric of our existence seems to be made of lines and dots. More recently, the interest for graphs overflowed from science to popular culture and images of networks started to appear everywhere. They decorate buildings and objects; they are printed on t-shirts and furniture; they colonize the desktop of our computers and the walls of our airports. Networks have become the emblem of modernity, a way to show and tell our world’s complexity. Our growing fascination for networks is not unjustified. Networks are powerful conceptual tools, encapsulating in a single object multiple affordances for computation (networks as graphs), visualization (networks as maps) and manipulation of data (networks as interfaces).

in Public understanding of science Publication date 2010-05
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The cartography of controversies is a set of techniques to explore and visualize issues. It was developed by Bruno Latour as a didactic version of Actor-Network Theory to train college students in the investigation of contemporary socio-technical debate. The scope and interest of such cartography, however, exceed its didactic origin. Adopted and developed in several universities in Europe and the US, the cartography of controversies is today a full research method, though, unfortunately, not a much documented one. To fill this lack of documentation, we draw on our experience as Latour’s teaching assistant, to introduce some of the main techniques of the social cartographer toolkit. In particular, in these pages we will focus on exploration, leaving the discussion of visualization tools to a further paper.

Cet article reprend une recherche de Luc Boltanski sur les enseignants de l’IEP de Paris. Dans cette recherche, Boltanski s’appuie sur une représentation tabulaire des champs sociaux pour montrer que la classe dominante se caractérise avant tout par sa multipositionnalité, c’est-à-dire par la tendance de ses membres à occuper plusieurs positions dans plusieurs champs. En remplaçant le tableau de Boltanski par un graphe d’individus et d’institutions, nous discuterons les caractéristiques et les avantages d’une sociologie de réseaux hétérogènes.

in Datafied Society: Social Research in the Age of Big Data. Publication date 2017-02-25
BOUNEGRU Liliana
GRAY Jonathan
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No doubt, networks have become indispensable mathematical tools in many aspects of life in the twenty first century. They allow us to calculate all kinds of relational metrics and to quantify the properties of their nodes, clusters and global structures. These modes of calculation are becoming increasingly prevalent in an age of digital data. But networks are more than formal analytical tools. They are also powerful metaphors of our collective life, with all of its complexity and its many dependencies. This is why, among the various strategies of data visualization, networks seem to have assumed a paradigmatic position, spreading to the most different disciplines and colonizing sometimes as mere decoration a growing number of digital and non-digital objects. Contemplating the visual representation of a network, we don’t (always) need to compute its mathematical properties to appreciate its heuristic value – as anyone who has ever used a transportation plan knows well. Networks are extraordinary calculating devices, but they are also maps, instruments of navigation and representation. Not only do they guide our steps through the territories that they represent, but they also invite our imagination to see and explore the world in different ways. [First paragraph]

in Digital Journalism Publication date 2016-06-20
BOUNEGRU Liliana
GRAY Jonathan
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Networks have become the de facto diagram of the Big Data age (try searching Google Images for [big data AND visualisation] and see). The concept of networks has become central to many fields of human inquiry and is said to revolutionise everything from medicine to markets to military intelligence. While the mathematical and analytical capabilities of networks have been extensively studied over the years, in this article we argue that the storytelling affordances of networks have been comparatively neglected. In order to address this we use multimodal analysis to examine the stories that networks evoke in a series of journalism articles. We develop a protocol by means of which narrative meanings can be construed from network imagery and the context in which it is embedded, and discuss five different kinds of narrative readings of networks, illustrated with analyses of examples from journalism. Finally, to support further research in this area, we discuss methodological issues that we encountered and suggest directions for future study to advance and broaden research around this defining aspect of visual culture after the digital turn.

The web is a field of investigation for social sciences, and platform-based studies have long proven their relevance. However the generic web is rarely studied in itself though it contains crucial aspects of the embodiment of social actors: personal blogs, institutional websites, hobby-specific media… We realized that some sociologists see existing web crawlers as “black boxes” unsuitable for research though they are willing to study the broad web. In this paper we present Hyphe, a crawler developed with and for social scientists, with an innovative “curation-oriented” approach. We expose the problems of using web-mining techniques in social science research and how to overcome those by specific features such as step-by-step corpus building and a memory structure allowing researchers to redefine dynamically the granularity of their “web entities”.

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The 2003 Unesco Convention for the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is addressed to States and assigns them several tasks. No State, however, can accomplish all these tasks without mobilizing a wide network of institutions, associations and individuals. The national ICH policies intersect, overlap and often transform the existing relationships among these actors. This paper aims at comparing several national networks (France, Italy, Switzerland) involved in the implementation of the 2003 Unesco Convention in order to highlight national trends and specificities. The analysis will employ an innovative methodology based on digital methods and aimed at exploring the landscapes of websites dedicated to the intangible heritage. Analyzing the hyperlinking strategies of ICH actors, we will identify the specific web topology of each nation, showing which actors are central and peripheral, whether clusters or cliques are formed and who plays the roles of authority and hub.

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Voluntary return is one of the pillars of durable solutions proposed for refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) under the international normative framework and human rights instruments. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident that occurred in March 2011 following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, displaced more than 150,000 persons as a large amount of radioactive materials were released into the sea and the atmosphere from crippled reactors. Four years later, many of these evacuees remain displaced, unable or hesitant to return home, due to radiological and social consequences caused by the disaster. This policy brief seeks to examine the case of Fukushima evacuees with a special focus on the question of return and attempts to make policy recommendations, specifically tailored to deal with the nuclear displacement. It explores ways in which genuine durable solutions can be found for their case in line with international protection guidelines for IDPs.

The aim of the project MEDEA is to use digital mapping tools to try and trace the provenance and pivot points in these debates within different institutional settings. We look principally at the construction of scientific expertise in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the evolution of adaptation as an issue within the international negotiations of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). We also have a separate case study that follows regional deliberations on climate impacts and water management in the southwest of France. This website presents the results from the first two investigations of this ANR funded project, which was was made possible by a joint collaboration between social and data scientists (Sciences Po, médialab), climate scientists (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et l'Environnement) and designers (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs). Experimental in its combination of disciplines and digital data methods, our mapping activities attempt to make legible to a non-expert public the institutional and topical transformations within the leading scientific and political arenas of the climate debate.

Si les dégradations de l’environnement apparaissent aujourd’hui comme un facteur majeur de migrations, le débat concernant la définition du lien entre environnement et migration reste profondément ouvert. Un très grand nombre de termes occupent aujourd’hui l’espace public pour désigner ceux qui doivent se déplacer à cause de dégradations de leur environnement, générant ainsi une controverse sur l’usage des différents termes. Cet article essaie d’éclaircir cette controverse en étudiant les usages de ces termes dans le débat public sur Internet. Pour ce faire, nous avons employé une nouvelle méthode numérique qui nous a permis, à travers l’interrogation du moteur de recherche Google.com, de collecter les pages web où la discussion autour des différentes définitions de ces migrations était la plus visible. Grâce à une analyse des expressions contenues dans ces pages, nous avons obtenu des cartes sémantiques qui ont nous permis de voir quels termes étaient associés les uns aux autres : en particulier, à quels acteurs, lieux ou concepts les différents termes étaient les plus connectés. Ces cartes révèlent la réalité polymorphe de ces migrations, mais aussi le vide catégoriel qui les entoure.

in COGITO, research newletter Publication date 2018-11
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In a study of sermons made by English preachers in the 17th and 18th centuries, medialab researcher Jean-Philippe Cointet and four sociologists and historians from American and German universities mapped biblical references used by priests from Anglican and dissident churches*. This work, presented in a Poetics journal article entitled “The (Protestant) Bible, the (printed) sermon, and the word(s): The semantic structure of the Conformist and Dissenting Bible, 1660–1780”, sheds lights on a whole swath of the history of faiths, and is notable for deploying new methods of textual analysis based on the quantitative and qualitative processing of empirical data. Awarded a prize from the American Sociological Association, this study is representative of a recent research trend in the humanities and social sciences: computational hermeneutics, which analyze and interpret cultural phenomena by drawing on quantitative methods and empirical data. (First paragraph)

Since its foundation in May 2009, the médialab Sciences Po works to foster the use of digital methods and tools in social sciences. With the help of existing tools and methods, we experienced the use of web mining techniques to extract data on collective phenomena. We also attended the symposiums organised by the two institutions responsible of web archiving in France: BnF and INA where we learnt about the difficulties posed to social scientists by the use of web archives. Actually our own experience in mining the live web wasn’t easier. Such difficulties, we believe, can be explained by the lack of tools allowing scholars to build themselves the highly specialized corpora they need from the wide heterogeneity of the web. The web isn’t a well-known document space for scholars or librarians. Its hyperlinked and heterogeneous nature requires to envision new ways of conceiving and building web corpora. And this notion of web corpus is a necessity for both live and archived web. If methods are not appropriate enough for analysing the live web, the problem will not be easier on an archive where the time dimension adds complexity.

Publication date 2011-07
DIMINESCU Dana
BOURGEOIS Mehdi
RENAULT Matthieu
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Publication date 2015-01
PLIQUE Guillaume
GUIDO Daniele
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Bruno Latour wrote a book about philosophy (an inquiry into modes of existence). He decided that the paper book was no place for the numerous footnotes, documentation or glossary, instead giving access to all this information surrounding the book through a web application which would present itself as a reading companion. He also offered to the community of readers to submit their contributions to his inquiry by writing new documents to be added to the platform. The first version of our web application was built on PHP Yiii and MySQL on the server side. This soon proved to be a nightmare to maintain because of the ultra-relational nature of our data. We refactored it completely to use node.js and Neo4J. We went from a tree system with internal links modelized inside a relational database to a graph of paragraphs included into documents, subchapters etc. all sharing links between them. On the way, we've learned Neo4J thoroughly, from graph data modeling to cypher tricks and developped our custom cypher query graphical monitor using sigma.js in order to check our data trans-modeling consistency. During this journey, we've stumbled upon data model questions : ordered links, sub items grouping necessity, data output constraints from Neo4J, and finally the limitations of Neo4J community edition. Finally we feel much more confortable as developers in our new system. Reasoning about our data has become much easier and, moreover, our users are also happier since the platform's performance has never been better. Our intention is, therefore, to share our experience with the community: - our application's data needs - our shift from a MySQL data model to a Neo4J graph model - our feedbacks in using a graph database and more precisely Neo4J including our custom admin tool [Agent Smith](https://github.com/Yomguithereal/agent-smith) - a very quick description of the admin tools we built to let the researchers write or modify contents (a markdown web editor) The research has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) / erc Grant ‘IDEAS’ 2010 n° 269567” Authors : Guillaume Plique A graduate student from Sciences-Po Lille and Waseda University, Guillaume Plique now offers the médialab his backend development skills as well as his profile in social sciences. He has been working since June 2013 on several projects such as IPCC mapping, AIME and develops scrapers aimed at social sciences researchers. https://github.com/Yomguithereal Paul Girard Paul Girard is an Information Technology engineer specialized in driving collaborations between technology and non-technical domains. He graduated from the cultural industry engineering specialisation in Université de Technologie de Compiègne in 2004 where he studied the relationships between digital technologies and society and the mechanisms of collaborations. He worked in the research laboratories federation CITU (Paris 1 and Paris 8 universities) from 2005 to 2009 where he participated in research and creation projects, collaborations between artists and engineers working with interactivity, digital pictures, virtual and augmented reality. He joined the médialab laboratory at Sciences Po at its foundation during the spring of 2009, as the digital manager of this digital research laboratory dedicated to fostering the use of digital methods and tools in Social Sciences. Since then he oversees the technical direction of the many research projects as collaborations between social sciences, knowledge engineering and information design. His present research fields are digital methods for social sciences, exploratory data analysis and enhanced publication though digital story telling. https://github.com/paulgirard Daniele Guido Daniele Guido is a visual interaction designer interested in data mining applications, text analysis and network tools. He collaborates with researchers in History and Social Science, designers and engineer to conceive and develop digital tools for the humanities. He recently joined the DIgital Humanities lab at CVCE team in Luxembourg after several years working at the Sciences-Po Medialab team in Paris, where he was engaged in the FORCCAST project (forccast.hypotheses.org) and in the AIME project (modesofexistence.org) https://github.com/danieleguido

Publication date 2010
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A python library to exchange webcorpus format

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Un rattachement ou une formation disciplinaire, pas plus que la relation à des espaces de travail et des instruments spécialisés, ne suffisent seuls à définir une culture scientifique. Ce sur quoi des chercheurs issus d’horizons divers travaillent, construit un mode singulier de conception de leurs activités, pratiques et rapport au monde. Leur réussite est irrémédiablement liée à un sujet, à la fortune que rencontre celui-ci comme innovation dans un contexte social qui le borne et qu’il crée simultanément. Comment s’organise cette (re)conversion vers une nouvelle thématique, alors que l’évolution des modes de financement privilégie aujourd’hui précisément ce cadrage ? Cette thèse propose une enquête sur la notion de « domaine de recherche », que nous définissons a priori comme le cadre des interactions entre l’activité professionnelle de chercheurs et la société autour d’un thème partagé ; elle défend sa dimension épistémique. Ce manuscrit décrit en parallèle le développement des bioénergies, une des principales formes d’énergie dites renouvelables ou encore durables, issue de la biomasse, ses acteurs et leurs jeux d’actions, dans un contexte de forte incitation à conduire une transition énergétique globale, mais aussi de controverses sociales vives. Les deux objectifs de cette thèse convergent : décrire le style de pensée inhérent à un domaine de recherche particulier est nécessaire à l’appréhension, au-delà des seuls discours et promesses, des modes effectifs de développement d’une innovation (ici la mobilisation à grande échelle de végétaux, microorganismes ou déchets pour produire des biocarburants) et donc in fine, à l’évaluation par tout un chacun, de sa pertinence.

in Diseña Publication date 2019-01
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The essay tries to unfold the specificities of some design approaches developed at the SciencesPo médialab. Instead of proposing a generalizable set of methods, this experiential account is a tentative systematization of some techniques that have been tested in the lab. Describing them is like annotating an anthology of thoughts and experiments that revolve around the questions of the ‘public’ and its ‘issues’. The techniques are aimed at exploring the social, technical and political issues, collecting their traces, their descriptions and their partial stories, bringing them into a space where they can be questioned. The different techniques are aligned into two epistemic movements, complementing, supporting and expanding the digital methods traditionally used in the lab. The first movement tries to produce a localized representation of the issue. The second one invites the public to get as close as possible to it.

in COGITO, la lettre de la recherche à Sciences Po Publication date 2018-11
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Dans une étude sur les sermons prononcés par des prêcheurs anglais aux 17e et 18e siècles, Jean-Philippe Cointet, chercheur au médialab, et quatre sociologues et historiens d’universités américaines et allemandes, ont établi une cartographie des références bibliques utilisées par les prêtres des églises anglicanes et dissidentes*. Ce travail, exposé dans un article de la revue Poetics “The (Protestant) Bible, the (printed) sermon, and the word(s): The semantic structure of the Conformist and Dissenting Bible, 1660–1780”, outre qu’il éclaire un pan entier de l’histoire des croyances, est notable en ce qu’il mobilise de nouvelles méthodes d’analyse textuelle basées sur un traitement quantitatif et qualitatif de données empiriques. Reconnue par un prix de l’American Sociological Association, cette étude est représentative d’un courant récent de recherches en sciences humaines et sociales : l’herméneutique computationnelle qui analyse et interprète les phénomènes culturels en s’appuyant sur des méthodes quantitatives et des données empiriques. (Premier paragraphe)

in Revue Thaêtre Publication date 2018
PRÉVOT Géraldine
FRODON Jean-Michel
RIOUAL Quentin
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Qui êtes-vous ? Comment, dans votre parcours, avez-vous rencontré la question de la recherche-création ? Je ne suis pas une personne, mais un programme pédagogique, créé au sein de Sciences Po par Bruno Latour en 2010. Je m’appelle SPEAP (pour Sciences Po, École des arts politiques). Bien que je n’utilise pas le terme « recherche-création », il me semble que ce qu’il désigne correspond beaucoup à ce que je fais.

in Progetto Grafico Publication date 2013
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Un progetto collaborativo diretto da Bruno Latour costruisce un repertorio multimediale per la ricerca scientifica e filosofica, nel segno di una nuova simbiosi tra database e narrazione

Publication date 2018
BRILLI Agata
TASSI Roberta
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From logs and information left in online spaces to data points self-generated by connected devices, digital traces have become more diffused over the past years, prompting an expansion of Human-Centered Design methods. Along with some bigdata approaches, Digital Methods of research – treating the actual content of digital users’ manifestation on-line (i.e. tweets, Instagram pictures, comments) – offer the opportunity to better understand users through their online activities. This paper investigates how Digital Methods can be repurposed as a full-fledged approach for Human-Centered Design. Grafting on the NATURPRADI project – a research aimed at describing the debate raised by the re-vegetation of the city of Paris by analysing Twitter posts – in the paper we will explain how we have identified and described a set of personas characterized by different approaches towards the evolution of the urban nature issue. The final objective of the paper is to provide a first methodological tool created at the intersection of Digital Methods and Human-Centered Design discussing its opportunities and criticalities: Data-driven Personas.

Publication date 2012
LECLERCQ Christophe
GUIDO Daniele
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Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.) is a renowned example of interdisciplinarity at the intersection of Art, Science and Technology, conceived by Rauschenberg, a co-founder of E.A.T., as a « map of engineers, money and equipment », facilitating collaborations between artist, engineer and industry. Despite the amount of information available, E.A.T.’s production and legacy remains unclear. The project, in collaboration with E.A.T. (represented by Julie Martin), is based on the organization’s numerous activities, developed in art and non-art contexts, including realized and unrealized works and projects from the 1960s to the present day. through a ‘datascape’. In the first place, the aim is to describe as extensively as possible the stories of works of art or projects, from their design and development stages to their different exhibitions and receptions. One of the main challenges is to produce a digital archive displaying the process of collaboration, not merely catalogue E.A.T.’s productions. Secondly, the archive will map these works and projects as networks of people, organizations, places and technologies, so as to better understand E.A.T.’s identity using the theories of Science and Technology Studies. The aim is to develop an online archive built as a research tool for humanities scholars in art and social art history. Their work, mapping the material in the archive, will provide the project’s added value; historical documents combined into information networks, revealed by various visualizations, will make of the archive a veritable exploratory tool.

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