Europe in 2040 : three scenarios
Docume de travail de l'OFCE : 2009-21
European Union, prospects, prosperity, empire, city-state
In this paper, we explore three scenarios for the future of the European Union, using history and reasoned imagination as guides. Our three scenarios are rooted in European contemporary challenges but draw on three ages that have shaped what Europe has become. Scenario 1 harks back to Antiquity (“the Empty Empire”), scenario 2 to the Middle Age (“Return of the City-states”) and scenario 3 to the Renaissance (“Renascent Europe”).