Historical transport policy developments : technical report for Stage 3 city, Vienna : D4.2
HALPERN Charlotte - Centre d'études européennes et de politique comparée (Author)
BASTUBER Nicole - (Author)
BASTUBER Nicole - (Author)
Paris : Sciences Po
Transport policy, Urban governance, Sustainable urban transport, Vienna
A number of travel behaviour indicators show that a major transformation has been taking place in Vienna since the mid 2000s. The analysis done in WP4 discusses transport policy developments in the context of the CREATE Stages 1-to-3 evolutionary approach. More precisely, analysing transport policy developments in Vienna highlights three major findings. First the three policy types coexist with one another, each benefiting from their own champions within the city administration, the political spectrum and the transport policy community at large. More precisely, transport policies shifted progressively from planning for the ‘automobile city’ (stage 1), towards planning for people (stage 2), which is still dominant in federal transport policies and to some extent, in transport policies at city level as well, and, more recently, towards ‘planning for city life’ policies (stage 3), which have been incrementally introduced during the 2010s. As observed in Copenhagen and Berlin, the incremental nature of policy change in Vienna contributes to exacerbating the overlap between the three policy types and for the transition being neither unidirectional nor evenly spread in the region. Second, robust forms of urban governance and the infrastructure and built environment legacy account for the emergence and adaptability of the Viennese model of public transport over time. Drawing on a deeply rooted corporatist form of policy-making, SPÖ elites were able, together with the City administration and the city’s utilities company, to negotiate effective implementation with transport organizations, workers’ representatives, and district administrations. By shaping opportunities for new entrants – civil society organizations, economic business groups, etc. – into the transport sector, it successfully integrated their demands into the local policy-making community. More precisely, the main drivers for stage 3 policies result from the pressure exerted by ecologist groups and cycling organizations, the election of a red-green majority in 2010 and increased policy capabilities within the City administration and the transport planning community. Third, similarly to the situation observed in other WP4 cities, this evolution is not evenly spread in the city, with some strong differences between the historic city centre, and the inner and the outer suburbs. In this respect, Vienna’s historic urban core still benefits from tailor-made transport policy initiatives, including urban design and pedestrianisation initiatives. By contrast the role of the car remains largely dominant on both sides of the city’s borders, and accounts for increased commuting traffic flows.