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  • QUACK Sigrid (15)
  • SAHLIN-ANDERSSON Kerstin (5)
  • AINAMO Antti (3)
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in Communities and Organizations Sous la direction de DJELIC Marie-Laure, QUACK Sigrid Publication date 2011-01
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While going through a revival in sociology and business studies, the concept of communities, as used in those disciplines, appears to confront, in an unresolved tension, the development of differentiated and transnationally interconnected modern societies. We argue that there is a need not only to "rediscover" but in fact also to "renew" the notion of community. Building on insights from classical sociology, we propose a definition of transnational communities as social groups emerging from mutual interaction across national boundaries, oriented around a common project or "imagined" identity. Transnational communities are not static structures but fluid and dynamic processes. They are constructed through symbolic or "imagined" proximity rather than through physical propinquity. More often than not, they are "communities of limited liability" rather than the expression of permanent ascriptive markers. Finally, transnational communities go well beyond the provision of local protection and solidarities as they engage in different kinds of transnational activism. This chapter compares bottom-up and top-down patterns of transnational community development, exploring in both cases the role of those communities in the dynamics of transnational governance. We propose that transnational communities impact cross-border governance in at least six different ways. They contribute to the framing of a governance problem space. They allow the mobilization of collective action while also serving as public arenas. They foster preference transformation. They directly participate in rule-setting while also playing a key role when it comes to monitoring and control. In conclusion, we identify key directions for further research.

in Transnational Communities Sous la direction de DJELIC Marie-Laure Publication date 2010-06
QUACK Sigrid
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The dichotomy of Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, as coined originally by Ferdinand Tönnies, has profoundly shaped the use of the concept of “community” in the social sciences (Tönnies 2002 [1897]). As shown by Renate Mayntz in this volume, the term “community,” when used alone and not qualified, still tends to suggest close-knit if not primary groups with rich emotional ties. It also conjures up geography and bounded space, local connectedness and physical proximity. [First paragraph]

In many industries, the contemporary context of acute environmental dislocation shows the limits of traditional organizational recipes. In direct response to environmental challenges, companies are experimenting with new organizational solutions. While flexibility, or the capacity to redefine organizational form to follow changing purposes, is undeniably a common trend, these experiments otherwise differ greatly. Diversity is such, in fact, that it is difficult to clearly identify and define a unique organizational paradigm for the future. To explore the connection between environmental dislocation and organizational transformations, we adopt a historical and comparative perspective. Our empirical base of evidence is the luxury fashion industry in three countries, France, Italy, and the United States. For many years, this industry was defined by stable environmental conditions, and a craft model of organization remained dominant. We show that, over a more recent period, increasing environmental turbulence has brought about a redefinition of the rules of the game. A common response has been for organizations to move towards greater flexibility or modularity and to experiment with network forms. However, we also show that the paths or trajectories leading to organizational flexibility have varied significantly across countries, reflecting historical legacies and institutional constraints. We identify in fact three different network forms in that industry, which represent national ideal types-the "umbrella holding" company in France, the "flexible embedded network" in Italy, and the "virtual organization" in the United States. We argue that the process of change in the luxury fashion industry has been one of coevolution, where environmental transformation and organizational change have fed upon each other through time. Pioneer firms in the luxury fashion industry originally devised organizational solutions within the bounds set by nationally defined constraints and opportunities. Becoming institutionalized, these early solutions in turn shaped the environment for individual organizations and organizational populations, creating new sets of opportunities and constraints. In a pathdependent manner, different models of organization and national competitiveness thus emerged. In conclusion, we are brought to question the likelihood of full and stable convergence towards a unique organizational form or paradigm. There appears to be, in each national context, a process of construction of new organizational solutions that starts from local foundations. Embedded as they are in powerful historical and institutional legacies, organizational differences are there to stay, we believe, beyond the period of transition and acute environmental dislocation. [First paragraph]

La managérialisation de la sphère publique est aujourd'hui dans l'air du temps. La réforme de l'Etat semble passer par l'importation et l'appropriation des pratiques et de l'esprit du management - avec promesse à la clef d'une plus grande rationalité et d'une meilleure efficience. En faisant un retour en arrière sur le contexte et les conditions de l'arrivée du management en France après la deuxième guerre mondiale, cet article offre une autre perspective sur les développements contemporains. Le management, au sens moderne que l'on donne à ce terme, est à l'origine américain. Il est importé/exporté en France dans les années qui suivent la deuxième guerre mondiale, dans un contexte local de remise en cause profonde des institutions économiques et sociales d'avant guerre. L'Etat et les institutions publiques et semi-publiques sont alors les éléments moteurs du processus de transfert. A l'époque, la sphère publique modernise le secteur privé - en particulier en lui imposant une révolution managériale. Les développements contemporains sont, de fait, les conséquences directes et indirectes du processus déclenché alors - un effet boomerang pour l'Etat français de son initiative lointaine de "modernisation" de l'économie et de l'industrie.

in Transnational Governance Sous la direction de DJELIC Marie-Laure Publication date 2006-01
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A distinctive feature of the contemporary period of globalization is a powerful trend towards marketization in many regions of the world. The term “marketization” refers both to market ideologies and market-oriented reforms. A market ideology reflects the belief that markets are of superior efficiency for the allocation of goods and resources. In its most extreme form, this belief is associated with the commodification of nearly all spheres of human life. Market-oriented reforms are those policies fostering the emergence and development of markets and weakening, in parallel, alternative institutional arrangements. During the last decades of the twentieth century, the dominant market-oriented reform mix has included macroeconomic stabilization, privatization, deregulation, liberalization of foreign trade and liberalization of international capital flows (Simmons et al. 2003). Since the early 1980s, market ideology and market-oriented policies have spread fast and wide around the globe. Markets, the argument goes, are better at allocating resources and producing wealth than bureaucracies, cartels or governments. Furthermore, the global diffusion of marketization has had an impact well beyond the traditional boundaries of the economy. Marketization implies a redefinition of economic rules of the game but also a transformed perspective on states, regulation and their role. Marketization is questioning all forms of protective boundaries and barriers and having an impact, as a consequence, on social and also cultural and legal policies (Collectif Dalloz 2004; Thornton 2004). [First lines]

in European Universities in Transition Publication date 2008-04
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The European Union projects itself as becoming "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-driven economy by 2010" (European Parliament, 2000). Policy pronouncements advocate, beyond national specificities, a European model of economic development where kowledge drives collective and individual welfare. As a consequence, the European Union identifies as key policy priorities the development of knowledge-production and knowledge-exploitation capacities. [First lines]

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In its traditional acceptance, the term “fashion” triggers images of frivolous, quite irrational and relatively inconsequential swings in clothing styles, with a particular impact on women. At first sight, such swings seem quite a world apart from high technology which on the contrary tends to be associated with ideas of science and rationality and suggests a masculine world. It is therefore surprising at first sight that the field of mobile telephony has, for a number of years now, shown signs of being impacted by fashion logics. The pioneer, there, was Nokia. Since 1995, the Finnish company has been using the imagery of fashion in its self-presentations, discourses and communications campaigns. At the beginning, it may be that the encounter between Nokia and fashion was a chance, or at best an emergent, happening. Progressively, however, the company made it a conscious strategy to appropriate elements of the fashion business model and to re-inject them into its actions. [First paragraph]

in Transnational Governance Sous la direction de DJELIC Marie-Laure Publication date 2006-01
KLEINER Thibaut
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in Global Themes and Local Variations in Organization and Management Publication date 2013-07
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The literature on globalization takes the nation-state seriously, but the issue is generally polarizing. On the one hand, globalization is understood to imply a decline of national polities and their order-creating capacities with a parallel increasing role for markets and market logics (Held and McGrew 1998; Ohmae 1995; Strange 1996). On the other hand, the demise of the nation-state is contested and its role re-affirmed as central in the context of multi-level governance (Boyer and Drache 1996; Hirst and Thompson 1996). [First paragraph]

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