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  • BONNET François (4)
  • RATHELOT Roland (4)
  • WASMER Etienne (4)
  • BEAUCHEMIN Chris (4)
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in La Vie des Idées Publié en 2008-10-27
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L’ouvrage de Douglas Massey, Categorically Unequal, dresse un état des lieux édifiant des inégalités aux États-Unis. L’étude classique de la stratification sociale est prolongée par une réflexion sur la production des catégories grâce auxquelles les individus et les groupes sont hiérarchisés.

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Using data from the three rounds of the European Social Survey, this article investigates the disparities in life satisfaction measures between the first- and second-generation immigrants, on the one hand, and the natives, on the other hand, in 13 European countries. Two major theoretical hypotheses explaining the lower level of immigrants’ subjective well-being are tested: the straight line assimilation and the effect of discrimination. The main finding is that immigrants’ relative dissatisfaction does not diminish with time and across generations, which refutes the predictions of the assimilation paradigm. However, when ethnic groups are compared, the discrimination some of them perceive in the host society seems to be a more consistent explanation for their lower life satisfaction level. The effect of discrimination is measured with an attempt to correct for the endogeneity bias that it may lead to by using simultaneous regressions with instrumental variables.

I use the French Trajectories and Origins survey to describe patterns and trends of cross-border ties across immigrant generations. Transnational activities are measured through a wide range of cross-border ties, grouped into three dimensions: sociopolitical, economic, and a third dimension that I call re-migration. Three sets of determinants are taken into account: variables measuring exposure to the country of origin, variables describing incorporation in the host country, and variables that are specific to each generation. Conversely to the straight-line assimilation paradigm, the findings put the analytical power of the generational variable into perspective by (1) highlighting the wide variability of transnationalism within each generation and (2) measuring distinct intergenerational trends along different types of cross-border engagement. A thorough investigation of the sources of within-generation heterogeneity emphasizes the explanatory power of state-level, religious, and ethnoracial variables.

This article describes patterns of ethnoracial and socioeconomic neighborhood attainment among North African, sub-Saharan African, and South European immigrants in France. We use French data from Trajectories and Origins to document the effects of assimilation variables such as immigrant generation, age at migration, parental age at migration, mixed ascendance, and socioeconomic status that are rarely available in large scale surveys. A simultaneous equation design is used to show patterns in ethnoracial and socioeconomic desegregation across groups and the contrasting ways in which these outcomes overlap. The findings highlight the weak impact of assimilation variables in accounting for spatial trajectories compared to the predominance of ethnoracial group, and document a higher risk of cumulative spatial disadvantage among North Africans and sub-Saharan Africans. The conclusion discusses the implications of these findings for understanding the ethnoracial dimensions of socio-spatial stratification in France.

Cette thèse cherche à analyser les dynamiques résidentielles des populations immigrées et issues de l’immigration en France et leur situation face au logement. S’appuyant sur deux grandes bases de données, l’Echantillon Démographique Permanent (INSEE) et l’enquête Trajectoires et Origines (INED/INSEE), qui comptent parmi les rares bases de données en France qui permettent d’identifier les immigrés et leurs descendants à travers le temps (1990-2008), cette recherche comporte trois grands volets empiriques. En premier lieu, je propose un panorama des situations résidentielles des immigrés et de leurs descendants, en focalisant sur les caractéristiques des zones urbaines où ces groupes sont concentrés, leur statut d’occupation du logement, ainsi que la manière dont ces différentes dimensions résidentielles s’articulent. Deuxièmement, tirant profit de la dimension longitudinale des données, l’analyse porte sur la mobilité résidentielle de ces groupes, en traçant leurs trajectoires dans les quartiers et dans le logement. Finalement, je mène une analyse intergénérationnelle des inégalités résidentielles afin de déterminer à quel point les individus « héritent » les positions spatiales de leurs parents. L’analyse porte une attention particulière aux déterminants individuels et contextuels des trajectoires afin de mieux saisir les mécanismes qui structurent les inégalités face au logement et dans l’espace.

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This article provides empirical results on patterns of native and immigrant geographic mobility in France. Using longitudinal data, we measure mobility from one French municipality (commune) to another over time and estimate the effect of the initial municipality’s ethnic composition on the probability of moving out. These data allow us to use panel techniques to correct for biases related to selection based on geographic and individual unobservables. Our findings tend to discredit the hypothesis of a “white flight” pattern in residential mobility dynamics in France. Some evidence does show ethnic avoidance mechanisms in natives’ relocating. We also find a strong negative and highly robust effect of co-ethnics’ presence on immigrants’ geographic mobility.

In France, immigrants are more likely to be unemployed or in low-skilled work than their native-born peers. Immigrants face a number of challenges to entering and advancing in the French labor market, including discrimination, foreign qualification recognition, and limited professional networks. Moreover, the French labor market is structurally unfavorable to new entries, whether migrants or native-born youth, and foreign nationals from outside the European Union (EU) are barred from many public- and private-sector jobs. Despite these obstacles, the government has not made a policy priority of getting newcomers into jobs. Integration policy in France has traditionally come in the form of urban policy, targeting disadvantaged neighborhoods that often happen to have a large number of immigrants and their children rather than immigrants themselves. While there have been significant reforms to integration policy since 2000, the focus of these reforms has been cultural, not socioeconomic, integration. Many features of France's robust workforce development system are available to immigrants upon arrival, including use of the public employment service that provides job search assistance and career counseling, but immigrants are excluded from the more prestigious elements like vocational training. This report examines how well mainstream employment policies, in combination with recent integration policy reforms—particularly the introduction of a new category, "newly arrived migrants"—are supporting migrants' integration into the labor market and advancement into middle-skilled jobs. The report provides an overview of immigrants' progress in the French labor market and analyzes recent French immigration policy and the relevant aspects of employment policy, language and vocational training, and antidiscrimination programs. Finally, the report proposes some policy recommendations.

Cet article propose un état des lieux empirique de la question de la ségrégation des populations immigrées en France. Il fournit des informations quantifiées, jusqu’ici très rares dans la recherche française, sur le niveau et l’évolution de la ségrégation de ces populations en utilisant les données issues de cinq recensements successifs et en diversifiant les outils de mesure. Un passage en revue théorique explicite les liens entre l’intégration des immigrés et leur distribution dans l’espace. Alors que la théorie de l’assimilation spatiale prédit une sorte de disparition naturelle de la ségrégation, les évolutions régulièrement décroissantes ne sont observées dans ce travail que pour les immigrés venus d’Espagne et d’Italie. Les immigrés venus d’Afrique ou de Turquie se caractérisent non seulement par des niveaux de ségrégation bien plus forts mais également par des évolutions plus contrastées, difficilement interprétables en termes d’assimilation spatiale. La multiplication des outils de mesure ainsi que des zones géographiques analysées met en évidence la complexité de l’analyse quantitative de la ségrégation spatiale et la diversité des facettes de ce phénomène.

in Revue française de sociologie Publié en 2006
SAFI Mirna
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Cet article porte sur l'intégration des immigrés en France en tant que processus démographique, économique, social et politique. Les méthodes utilisées sont de type quantitatif et se fondent sur l'exploitation statistique de l'enquête MGIS (Mobilité géographique et insertion sociale, INSEE-INED, 1992). En partant d'une littérature qui met l'accent sur le caractère multidimensionnel et segmenté du processus d'intégration des immigrés, on a cherché à élaborer une typologie empirique de ce dernier permettant de tester l'existence de différents modèles. On montre alors que l'hypothèse classique de l'intégration qui suppose l'existence d'un processus de convergence uniforme n'est validée que pour le cas des Espagnols. D'autres modèles plus complexes et plus segmentés semblent caractériser les différentes communautés représentées dans l'enquête.

Using data from the three rounds of the European Social Survey, this article investigates the disparities in life satisfaction measures between the first- and second-generation immigrants, on the one hand, and the natives, on the other hand, in 13 European countries. Two major theoretical hypotheses explaining the lower level of immigrants’ subjective well-being are tested: the straight line assimilation and the effect of discrimination. The main finding is that immigrants’ relative dissatisfaction does not diminish with time and across generations, which refutes the predictions of the assimilation paradigm. However, when ethnic groups are compared, the discrimination some of them perceive in the host society seems to be a more consistent explanation for their lower life satisfaction level. The effect of discrimination is measured with an attempt to correct for the endogeneity bias that it may lead to by using simultaneous regressions with instrumental variables.

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