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  • SALAMONSKA Justyna (7)
  • FAVELL Adrian (5)
  • BARONE Carlo (3)
  • GRIFONE BAGLIONI Lorenzo (2)
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Après la crise de l’Euro, se redessine un mouvement migratoire intra-européen originaire des pays du sud, principalement alimenté par une jeunesse hautement qualifiée. On sait peu de choses sur les déterminants et les profits escomptés de leurs déplacements. Cet article étudie plus particulièrement le cas des italiens, à travers des entretiens menés en 2011 sur un large échantillon représentatif des jeunes diplômés. 4 ans après l’obtention de leur diplôme, 2.4% vivent à l’étranger ; la majeure partie d’entre eux (87%) se sont installés dans un autre pays de l’Union Européenne. Les analyses multivariées montrent que la propension à migrer est plus forte chez les jeunes issus de familles de classes sociales supérieures et d’inscrits dans des disciplines scientifiques ouvertes sur le monde. La migration est également corrélée avec les performances scolaires dans l’enseignement secondaire et supérieur. Comparés aux individus non mobiles, les migrants de la cohorte affichent de meilleures perspectives de carrière, de meilleurs salaires, plus de satisfaction dans leur travail, et moins de risque de chômage. De plus, en moyenne et toute chose étant égale par ailleurs, la Parité en Pouvoir d’Achat (PPP), au travers du salaire horaire net de ces migrants, est 27% plus élevée que pour ceux qui restent en Italie. Cet écart varie considérablement selon les pays de destination, entre 17% et 98%.

in Pioneers of European Integration Sous la direction de FAVELL Adrian, RECCHI Ettore Publié en 2009
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‘Free movement has become a defining feature of European society. This important study answers the question “who are these free movers?”. Using both quantitative and qualitative research evidence, it brings new perspectives to the sociology of European migration and integration, broadening the analysis from traditional labour migrants to various new kinds of spatial and social mobility in the continent.’ – Russell King, University of Sussex and Sussex Centre for Migration Research, UK Pioneers of European Integration offers the first systematic analysis of the small but symbolically potent number of Europeans who have chosen to live and work as foreigners in another member state of the EU. The free movement of EU citizens is the most visible sociological consequence of the remarkable process of European integration that has transformed the continent since the Second World War. Based on an original survey of 5000 people moving to and from the EU’s five largest countries, the book documents the demographic profile, migration choices, cultural adaptation, social mobility, political participation and media use of these pioneers of a transnational Europe, as well as opening a window to the new waves of intra-EU East–West migrations.

in L’état du monde 2016 Publié en 2015-08
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Les pays de l’UE ont été inégalement touchés par la crise de la dette européenne : les plus riches ont été épargnés. La conséquence la plus évidente est que les écarts de niveau de vie des citoyens des différentes sociétés nationales européennes se sont accrus. Une dynamique de divergence internationale s’est enclenchée. Toutefois, malgré les coupes de budget de l’État providence dues à la ligne d’austérité, les inégalités économiques internes aux sociétés nationales – qui sont aussi les plus visibles dans la vie quotidienne – n’ont pas explosé. Par ailleurs, le système de protection sociale pour les populations les plus pauvres montre une certaine résilience. Les répercussions politiques de cette double tendance sont assez définies : d’un côté, les écarts croissants entre les niveaux de vie des différents pays de l’UE favorisent la montée d’un sentiment anti-européen ; de l’autre, la relative stabilité des inégalités internes peut expliquer pourquoi l’ordre social a, dans l’ensemble, plutôt mieux résisté à la crise qu’on n’aurait pu l’anticiper, y compris dans des pays qui, à l’image de la Grèce, ont connu un appauvrissement spectaculaire.

in Innovation Publié en 2014
RECCHI Ettore
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This article argues that there are two distinct logics that underlie existing studies on European identification. These are grounded in models of collective identity formation that stress either messages inscribed in discursive processes or practices situated in socio-spatial relations – respectively, the “culturalist” and the “structuralist” models. The first of these models considers identification as a direct outcome of the exposure to content-specific symbols, narratives, and messages; the second, as an emerging property of socio-spatial interactions that are content-free of identity references. The first is logocentric, while the second is democentric and topocentric. This article focuses particularly on the second and less-developed research tradition which explores the effects of cross-national practices. The limits and potential of this model are discussed, setting an agenda for empirical research aiming to better elucidate the causal dynamics of European identity formation and adjudicate between these competing explanations.

in Politics Publié en 2016-08
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While migration has always existed, and its consequences have always been important, few people have lived a mobile life in the history of mankind. Population immobility has recurrently been part and parcel of political strategies of social control and domination. Since the second half of the 20th century, however, the extent of geographical movements of individuals has expanded enormously. In particular, the size and scope of international travel has increased at an exponential pace. Favored by globalization and technological progress, transnationalism, initially linked to migration, has emerged as a relatively widespread phenomenon that involves a growing portion of the general population, especially, but not only, in developed countries. Mainly on the basis of research carried out in Europe, there is evidence that transnational practices tend to strengthen cosmopolitanism and the legitimacy of supranational polities (particularly the European Union [EU]), while it is less clear whether they entail denationalization. Further research is needed to improve the quality of independent and dependent variables in this area and assess the effect of international mobility and transnationalism outside the European context. [Abstract's publisher]

in Sociologia Publié en 2014
RECCHI Ettore
GRIFONE BAGLIONI Lorenzo
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Dalla Scuola Ecologica di Chicago ai giorni nostri, l’esercizio prevalente della ricerca sociologica applicata alla convivenza di gruppi etnici diversi si traduce in declinazioni articolate di percorsi e modalità di ‘integrazione’. Al termine di una breve rassegna di tali paradigmi interpretativi, si propone una definizione ‘minima’ di integrazione delle minoranze etniche immigrate: l’integrazione come ‘migration neutrality ’ – ossia, l’irrilevanza dell’origine nazionale come predittore dell’accesso degli individui alle risorse economiche, di prestigio e relazionali di una società (i capitali economico, culturale e sociale di Pierre Bourdieu). Questa definizione sgombra il campo da perigliose derive culturaliste circa la ‘compatibilità’ tra gruppi etnici, assumendo che tale compatibilità sia tanto maggiore quanto minori sono gli scarti osservabili nella distribuzione delle risorse economiche, culturali e sociali. Data questa premessa, il paper sviluppa un’analisi empirica su due fronti. Da una parte, svolge un’analisi secondaria dei dati Eurostat sull’integrazione degli immigrati negli stati membri dell’Unione Europea. Successivamente, si interroga sul rapporto tra politiche dell’integrazione ed effettiva integrazione, mettendo in relazione i dati Eurostat appena menzionati con gli indici Mipex che misurano le politiche di integrazione degli stati europei. I paesi con le ‘migliori pratiche’ di intervento sono anche quelli che massimizzano la migration neutrality, in particolare sul fronte dell’esclusione sociale? Le analisi mostrano che, in chiave comparativa europea, la relazione tra politiche di integrazione e rischio di esclusione sociale tra gli immigrati non è lineare ed esige una riflessione maggiore sia sugli strumenti di analisi che sulle dinamiche effettive che legano politiche e diseguaglianze sociali tra nativi e immigrati.

in Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies Publié en 2016-11
DUBUCS Hadrien
PFIRSCH Thomas
SCHMOLL Camille
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Italy has experienced a new wave of population outflows, in particular since the end of the 2000s, with France as one of the top destinations. This paper investigates the structural and socio-cultural integration of Italian migrants in Paris. The paper is based on a mixed-methods approach, using in-depth interviews, census data and an online survey. We found that the profile and incorporation patterns of post-crisis migrants reflects a long-term trend of middling migration out of Italy. Similar to other studies, we show that current Italian migrants are prevailingly highly skilled and employed in non-manual jobs. As for socio-cultural integration, the paper highlights the symbolic value of the host city, to which migrants are strongly attached. Moreover, the longer the Italian’s stay in Paris, the higher his/her integration in Italy-oriented activities, both within Paris and in Italy. This indicates a complex incorporation model that is at odds with assimilation but at the same time departs from ethnicised and community-based patterns. Italian migrants combine being both Parisian and Italian in a ‘synergistic balancing act’ (Erdal and Oeppen 2013. ‘Migrant Balancing Acts: Understanding the Interactions between Integration and Transnationalism.’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39 (6):867–884.) of integration and transnationalism.

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In this article we discuss the concept of European solidarity by distinguishing between transnational and international solidarity. The former refers to support for institutional arrangements aimed at sharing economic risks at the individual level, while the latter entails public agreement to share economic risks at the Member State level. We explore the joint role of cross-border interactions and political attitudes in fostering solidarity ties among Europeans through multilevel modelling based on the 2012 Eurobarometer 77 survey. The article shows that transnational experiences do not have the same effect on different forms of European solidarity, limiting transnational and enhancing international solidarity. Egalitarian individuals are more prone to EU-wide solidarity, with cross-border practices affecting their level of solidarity, while not altering those of the rest of the population. In particular, we find that cross-border practices make egalitarians more inclined to international and less to transnational solidarity.

Publié en 2014-07
SALAMONSKA Justyna
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Social stratification research on leisure tends to focus on class differences in cultural consumption patterns.In this literature, seldom is travelling taken into account as a dependent variable, even if international journeys are exponentially rising worldwide. But how is the experience of travelling sorted across social strata? Do they increase linearly as we move up the social hierarchy, as a reflex of higher income and cultural capital? Or are they more than proportionally an elite prerogative, while the bulk of the population keeps nation-wide travel horizons? And are there societal differences in the association between social class and travelling? In addition, this paper investigates differences in meanings of travels. We thus expand the cultural-sociological debate on the social stratification of cultural tastes to mobility behaviours. Is international travelling a form of ‘omnivorous’ consumption, to use the famous concept of Peterson, for the better off and most educated? Is it meant to incorporate holidays, business and sociability experiences among the upper class, while being more focused and limited in scope among lower classes? Do these differences help characterize class-specific cultural capitals, thus fostering class reproduction? We address both sets of questions – the social stratification of the quantity and quality of mobility experiences – by analysing the distribution of national and international travels across social strata with data from the EUCROSS survey, covering six EU countries (Denmark, Germany, Italy, Romania, Spain and the UK. Preliminary analyses of EUCROSS data suggest that SES is an important predictor of mobility experiences; however, there are differences in motives of travels. Higher SES is associated with more travel for both holidays and professional trips. Furthermore, travelling patterns vary significantly depending on the countries from which they originate.

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