Part or chapter of a book
New Russian Geopolitics: Reviving Past Perceptions and Ambitions
Geopolitics in the Twenty-First Century: Territories, Identities, and Foreign Policies
New York : Nova Science Publishers
Russia, geopolitics, Eurasianism, isolationism, exceptionalism, westernism
Putin’s Russia has evolved towards greater assertion in world politics, including the use of military means in Europe and the Middle East. The chapter explains the key reorientations of Russian foreign policy in the 21st century by delving into the geopolitical thinking that has been influential in the Russian course. Four main geopolitical theories have been dominating in the Kremlin’s views since the 2000s: Eurasianism, Isolationism, Exceptionalism and the Westerners’ approach. Taking into consideration these four main geopolitical streams and the fact that they have all emerged in past historical contexts, our chapter aims at explaining their reformulation today and how they interplay among themselves. At the bottom line, we expose the renewed significance of the Eurasian vision and scale for Russia and how it contributes to explain the “turn to the East”, initialed in 2008, in detriment of relations with Europe. Common to the four the geopolitical discourses is the question whether Russia is European or a different entity and a reflection about Russian isolation. The incorporation of these views in the Kremlin’s choices point to further estrangement from cooperation with Europe, and leave the way open for different modes of engagement towards the East at large.