Type
Part or chapter of a book
Title
Bahrain: The Army and the Dynamics of State-Society Relations
In
Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics
Author(s)
LOUER Laurence - Centre de recherches internationales (Author)
THOMPSON William R - (Publishing director)
Editor
Oxford : Oxford University Press
Pages
en ligne - p.
ISBN
9780190228637
Keywords
Gulf, Bahrain, mercenaries, sectarianism, factionalism, mass politics, military in politics
Abstract
EN
In contrast with some of its Gulf neighbors, Bahrain cannot develop a more socially embedded military institution that would be the engine of an inclusive nation-building process. This is because of the peculiar nature of its state–society relations, which are plagued by mutual distrust between the ruling Al Khalifa family, who hail from the country’s Sunni minority, and a great part of the Shia majoritarian population. As a result, the security apparatus, and the army in particular, recruits almost exclusively from the ruling family, its Sunni tribal allies, and foreigners. Totally insulated from the Shia society, the militaries never participated, nor will ever participate, in mass politics, which have been mostly driven by Shia-dominated protests. The noncompromise option taken by the incumbents following the mass protest of 2011 has entailed a shift toward a hard form of authoritarianism in which the security apparatus has emerged as a key actor of political control. The regime is increasingly militarized as the Al Khalifa militaries have acquired a growing weight in the politics of dynastic factionalism, with the militaries now being in crucial positions to influence not only the kingdom’s policies but also the internal balances within the ruling dynasty.

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