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in Site du CERI Publié en 2021-05-26
AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine
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Présentation de l’ouvrage Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self dirigé par Séverine Awenengo Dalberto et Richard Banégas et de la web série.

in Site du CERI Publié en 2021-05-26
AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine
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In the context of a global biometric turn, the book presented here and in the web series ("Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self", edited by Séverine Awenengo Dalberto and Richard Banégas (London, Routledge, 2021) investigates processes of identification in Africa “from below”, asking what this means for the relationship between citizens and the state.

in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Sous la direction de AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publié en 2021-05-10
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How are the practices for verifying the identity of immigrant learners informed by the devices on which school staff rely? An analysis of the materiality and utilization of these devices in low-income Johannesburg high schools reveals that they form a mixed regime of identification in which documentary verification predominates and is linked with interpersonal certification and digital authentication. This mixed regime fosters the exclusion of immigrant learners, as it supports the joint enforcement of migration control in schools by the Department of Basic Education and the Department of Home Affairs. Digitalization reinforces paper barriers to schooling in the form of identification documentation requirements by limiting school staff's ability to circumvent them, in contexts marked by precarity and ordinary xenophobia.

in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Sous la direction de AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publié en 2021-05-10
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This chapter analyses the processes of bureaucratization and self-registration produced by the Koglweogo self-defence groups. It shows how they reappropriate institutional norms and practices in order to organize and legitimate their law enforcement activities. The production of their own means of identification, particularly membership cards, allows them to define and create a moral identity and thus to exclude ‘bad’ citizens from social space. It further serves as a means of seeking the state's recognition and legal validation.

in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Sous la direction de AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publié en 2021-05-10
AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine
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This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book explores scope to refine, and sometimes considerably qualify, certain points of this interpretation. It explains that personal identity booklets began to be issued in conjunction with the census in 1930. The book argues that the bureaucratic mobilization for the ethnic registration of Rwandans began immediately after independence, with major political effects. It describes the post-war identification reforms undertaken by the Ouattara regime certainly helped to deradicalize this ideological opposition under a technicist veneer, but at the price of a general amnesty for documentary fraud that amounted to state institutionalization of identity falsification. The book focuses on the use of ethnic identity cards in the violent history of Rwanda, and the preparation and conduct of the 1994 genocide.

in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Sous la direction de AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publié en 2021-05-10
OWACHI Gerald
SNOW William
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Since 2014 in Uganda, 15,000 people defined or self-defined as Maragoli have not obtained a biometric identity card. Having migrated from Kenya in the 1950s, the Maragoli were not included on the constitutional list of so-called indigenous groups. Their quest for citizenship has prompted a ‘self-documentation’ effort, involving the production of an origin narrative, a self-census, the collection of historical archives, and booklets of official correspondence, to document their request for recognition of indigenousness. This contribution examines how identificatory policies in a context of bureaucratization and biometrization of legal identities have had a profound impact on the social fabric, on practices, and on representations of the collective identity, of self and citizenship. Paradoxically, through the materialization of identity technology, people are counted, identified, and categorized, but also negotiate their identity.

in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Sous la direction de AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publié en 2021-05-10
ROBERTSON Rachel
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In October 1947 in Uganda, the British colonial administration opened local consultations about the introduction of an ‘identity card for Africans.’ The consultation process concluded barely two months later, putting a definitive end to the project. Through a thorough examination of Ugandan and British archives and the East African press of the time, this article traces the failure of this project. It shows how, despite different political and economic contexts, the Ugandan process was impacted by the debates about the much-detested Kenyan kipande. This case study shows the intra-imperial circulation of identification schemes, personnel, and techniques as well as the common attempt to impose a moral order of the identity card. It also highlights the limits and resistance of a regionalized elite to the export of a model of political, social, and economic control.

Sous la direction de AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publié en 2021-05-10 Collection Routledge Contemporary Africa
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In the context of a global biometric turn, this book investigates processes of legal identification in Africa ‘from below,’ asking what this means for the relationship between citizens and the state. Almost half of the population of the African continent is thought to lack a legal identity, and many states see biometric technology as a reliable and efficient solution to the problem. However, this book shows that biometrics, far from securing identities and avoiding fraud or political distrust, can even participate in reinforcing exclusion and polarizing debates on citizenship and national belonging. It highlights the social and political embedding of legal identities and the resilience of the documentary state. Drawing on empirical research conducted across 14 countries, the book documents the processes, practices, and meanings of legal identification in Africa from the 1950s right up to the biometric boom. Beyond the classic opposition between surveillance and recognition, it demonstrates how analysing the social uses of IDs and tools of identification can give a fresh account of the state at work, the practices of citizenship, and the role of bureaucracy in the writing of the self in African societies. This book will be of an important reference for students and scholars of African studies, politics, human security, and anthropology and the sociology of the state.

in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Sous la direction de AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publié en 2021-05-10
CUTOLO Armando
KOUYATE Souleymane
SNOW William
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In Côte d'Ivoire, documentary falsification encompasses a wide variety of practices and situations, including fake birth certificates, locally known as ‘René Cailliés.’ Since the early 2000s, successive governments have tried to put things in order through civil registration reforms. Among many measures the Ouattara government has taken to fix this issue since the war, the adoption of a personal biometric identification number was presented as the key to a modernity free from the relics of corruption and nationality fraud. Yet this reform did not eliminate the logic of social intermediation and brokerage (margouillats). Aware of the strength of this stipendiary chain of production of fake documents, President Ouattara passed a new law granting amnesty to all the René Cailliés. In an irony of history, the government paradoxically legalized informality and forgery to implement its biometric project for modernizing the legal identity system.

in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Sous la direction de AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publié en 2021-05-10
EDWARDS Jessica
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This contribution uses the private archives of Aicha, an Ivorian former combatant, to retrace part of her life during and after the Ivorian crisis. Her papers, mainly cards issued by institutions and actors involved in the crisis and its management (rebel forces, Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration programmes, and associations of ex-combatants), highlight the voluntary engagement of women in armed groups, bringing them back into the national narrative of activism and conflict. Her papers also inform us more broadly about the variety of bodies producing documents and shed light on the dissemination of bureaucratic reason among them. As such, this chapter analyses the place and role played by papers at different periods and among different actors in a society marked by a decade of ‘war of identification and for papers.’

in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Sous la direction de AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publié en 2021-05-10
AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine
CUTOLO Armando
ROBERTSON Rachel
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This chapter examines the boom in new technologies for identifying people that African societies are experiencing and discusses their political effects. Is biometrics radically changing the practices of power and citizenship? Does it entail a new relationship between individuals and the state? Based on empirical studies conducted in several countries and on the academic literature, this contribution questions the utopias of biometric ‘emergence’ and the democratic illusion of the universalization of rights through digital technology. It shows that the documentary state as it works in practice is not supplanted by the biometric state and that new technologies do not prevent either identity fraud or political distrust—at times, they even accentuate the logic of civic exclusion. The chapter thus underlines the profound social embedding of biometric reforms and the undeniable ability of social actors to adapt to new technologies.

in Identification and Citizenship in Africa. Biometrics, the Documentary State and Bureaucratic Writings of the Self Sous la direction de AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publié en 2021-05-10
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For 40 years, Nigeria has separated its citizens into two categories, ‘indigenes’ and ‘non-indigenes.’ Indigene citizens can trace their genealogical roots back to a community in a specific locality. All local governments issue certificates of indigene to certify this origin, but the techniques of identification and the definition of the term indigene vary radically from one local government to another. This chapter explores the relationship between local government officers, the chiefs working for them, and users seeking a certificate in Oyo State and Plateau State. This bureaucratic relationship is a form of ordinary state-citizen interaction, yet it redefines an exclusive local citizenship. The chapter seeks to understand how applicants engage with these procedures, how ancestral origins are investigated, and the conditions in which issuing certificates of indigene can become a controversial political issue.

in Politique africaine Sous la direction de AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard, CUTOLO Armando Publié en 2019-04-15
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L’Afrique connaît, depuis le tournant du siècle, une expansion rapide des nouvelles technologies d’identification des personnes. Alors que près de la moitié de la population du continent ne serait pas dotée d’une identité légale, la biométrie apparaît comme la solution miracle pour lutter contre la fraude électorale, certifier les comptes bancaires, compenser les faiblesses de l’état civil et, surtout, contrôler les flux de population. Si le souci sécuritaire est central dans cette dynamique globale, la biométrisation des identités se pare aussi des atours démocratiques de l’accès aux droits, de la « bonne gouvernance » et du développement. Par-delà l’opposition classique entre surveillance et reconnaissance, le dossier interroge les effets actuels du tournant biométrique sur le fonctionnement des États et l’exercice de la citoyenneté au sud du Sahara. Les enquêtes menées en Afrique du Sud, au Burkina Faso, en Mauritanie, au Tchad, en Guinée et au Maroc soulignent l’encastrement social et politique de cette révolution technologique et la résilience de l’État documentaire. Elles montrent que la biométrie, loin de sécuriser les identités, peut contribuer au renforcement de l’exclusion et à la polarisation des débats sur l’appartenance citoyenne et nationale.

Digitalized paper barriers: Identity verifications and the exclusion of immigrant students in working-class high schools in Johannesburg How do devices designed for identification direct the practices of school staff towards immigrant students and foster their exclusion? The analysis of the materiality and utilization of these devices in working-class high schools in Johannesburg reveals a mixed regime in which documentary verification dominates and is linked to interpersonal certification and digital authentication. The Departments of Education and of Home Affairs instil migration control in high schools. Paper barriers to education are solidified through digitalization and the school staff sees its ability to circumvent them reduced, in contexts marked by insecurity and the normalization of xenophobia.

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Plan de l'article : - Le tournant biométrique de l’« Émergence » - État documentaire versus État biométrique : l’identité légale sans la personne sociale ? - La biométrie encastrée dans le social et le politique

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Cet article examine l’introduction de l’enregistrement biométrique des réfugiés maliens qui vivent au Burkina Faso. Il interroge la manière dont cette technologie, basée sur l’objectivité supposée de la vérité des corps, affecte les autres modes d’identification des réfugiés, en particulier ceux qui reposent sur le témoignage et l’authentification sociale. Il pose également la question des effets de cette nouvelle technologie sur la façon dont les réfugiés eux-mêmes construisent leur identité sociale. Finalement, l’article permet de comprendre que l’introduction de l’enregistrement biométrique des réfugiés n’a pas radicalement fait évoluer la manière dont le statut de réfugié est octroyé et la catégorie sociale construite.

L’article analyse l’activité des démarcheurs informels (surnommés « margouillats ») qui, autour du palais de justice d’Abidjan, « font sortir les papiers », en particulier les certificats de naissance et de nationalité, dont ils travaillent à l’obtention pour les requérants qui viennent en faire la demande. Il décrit leur insertion dans les pratiques administratives de production documentaire et les réseaux interpersonnels de la « chaîne alimentaire » du Palais. L’important est moins l’analyse de la corruption bureaucratique que les justifications morales apportées à la marchandisation de la nationalité. Se focalisant sur l’espace moralement liminal de production d’un faux document d’identité, l’article fait l’hypothèse que les intermédiaires n’effacent pas les frontières politiques de la citoyenneté mais prolongent au contraire, par capillarité, l’action discriminante de l’État dans la rue.

in Genèses Sous la direction de AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine, BANEGAS Richard Publié en 2018-10
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Sommaire du dossier Séverine Awenengo Dalberto, Richard Banégas Citoyens de papier : des écritures bureaucratiques de soi en Afrique Louise Barré « Mettre son nom » : revendications familiales au sein de procédures d’identification (Côte d’Ivoire 1950-1970) Sidy Cissokho Culture professionnelle et culture de l’État Notes sur l’institution du permis de conduire au Sénégal Laurent Fourchard Citoyens d’origine contrôlée au Nigeria Armando Cutolo, Richard Banégas Les margouillats et les papiers kamikazes Intermédiaires de l’identité, citoyenneté et moralité à Abidjan

in Genèses Publié en 2018-10
AWENENGO DALBERTO Séverine
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Depuis 2015, la crise des réfugiés a replacé la question de l’identification des personnes au centre de l’attention publique en Europe et ailleurs dans le monde. Les harraga « brûleurs » de papiers et de frontières, qui tentent de gagner Lampedusa, sont tenus de se faire enregistrer dans les hot spots que la forteresse européenne dresse en son limes méditerranéen et désormais saharien ; leurs empreintes et données biométriques sont consignées dans les registres de Frontex qui permettent ensuite aux polices européennes de renvoyer les « Dublinés » dans le pays où ils ont laissé une trace de leur passage, sinon de leur identité ; aux guichets des administrations, les demandeurs d’asile endurent les épreuves du récit d’attestation identitaire traçant la frontière entre les ayant-droit et les autres (Spire 2005 ; Beneduce 2015 ; Mazouz 2017) ; jusqu’aux corps anonymes, échoués sur les côtes italiennes ou marocaines, dont certains militants s’attachent à retrouver le nom, car un « corps sans papiers est un cercueil sans État » (citation extraite des travaux en cours d’Alimou Diallo ; voir aussi Ritaine 2015 ; Programme Babels 2017). La crainte des attentats terroristes a bien sûr décuplé l’obsession sécuritaire du filtrage des individus et de la surveillance des mobilités, jetant le doute sur tout document susceptible de certifier l’identité légale des personnes. Surtout lorsque celles-ci arrivent d’un pays du Sud global et d’Afrique en particulier. (Premier paragraphe)

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Le Nigeria a dissocié depuis quatre décennies le corps des citoyens en deux : les indigenes et les non indigenes. Les indigenes sont ceux qui peuvent faire remonter leurs racines généalogiques à une communauté de personnes originaires d’une localité. Les gouvernements locaux produisent des certificats d’indigene qui certifient cette origine. Cet article explore la relation entre les fonctionnaires des gouvernements locaux, leurs intermédiaires et les usagers en quête de certificat dans trois États du Nigeria. L’analyse montre comment les candidats se prêtent à ces procédures, comment la relation bureaucratique constitue un apprentissage ordinaire de l’État et redéfinit l’appartenance à une citoyenneté locale exclusive, et à quelles conditions la production de documents devient une question politique conflictuelle.