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in Cooperation and Conflict Sous la direction de KAUNERT Christian, LEONARD Sarah Publié en 2012-12
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The EU has been making strong inroads into the realm of security over the last few years. This is a remarkable development, since security matters used to be the preserve of states. The articles presented in this special issue all testify to the breadth of the EU security agenda, as they all try to capture some aspects of the EU’s fast-changing security policies following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty on 1 December 2009. In parallel with a broadening of the EU’s security agenda, an increase in supranational security governance in the EU can also be observed. The transition to supranational governance is reached in two ways. First, cross-border security threats generate demand for EU laws, which supranational organisations then supply. Reasons for changes in the EU polity are exogenous shocks, the fact that rule innovations are endogenous to politics, the diffusion of organisational behaviour and models of action, and policy entrepreneurship, whereby institutional entrepreneurs construct and revise ‘policy frames’, which engage other actors and define new relationships between them and chart courses of action. As the articles in this special issue demonstrate, 11 September 2001 provided such a major exogenous shock required for a change in the EU polity, which EU institutions exploited by providing increasing EU legislation, and even, as a by-product, stabilising a European legal order.

The EU has been making strong inroads into the realm of security over the last few years. This is a remarkable development, since security matters used to be the preserve of states. The articles presented in this special issue all testify to the breadth of the EU security agenda, as they all try to capture some aspects of the EU’s fast-changing security policies following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty on 1 December 2009. In parallel with a broadening of the EU’s security agenda, an increase in supranational security governance in the EU can also be observed. The transition to supranational governance is reached in two ways. First, cross-border security threats generate demand for EU laws, which supranational organisations then supply. Reasons for changes in the EU polity are exogenous shocks, the fact that rule innovations are endogenous to politics, the diffusion of organisational behaviour and models of action, and policy entrepreneurship, whereby institutional entrepreneurs construct and revise ‘policy frames’, which engage other actors and define new relationships between them and chart courses of action. As the articles in this special issue demonstrate, 11 September 2001 provided such a major exogenous shock required for a change in the EU polity, which EU institutions exploited by providing increasing EU legislation, and even, as a by-product, stabilising a European legal order.

Sous la direction de KAUNERT Christian, LEONARD Sarah Publié en 2012-09
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The EU has often been considered to be a weak security actor. However, any assessment of the EU’s role in international security is underpinned by a specific understanding of security. This book is based on a broad understanding of security. We consider that security concerns are increasingly triggered by challenges such as terrorism, climate change, mass migration flows, and many other ‘non-traditional’ security issues. This book tries to capture these aspects of the EU’s fast changing security policies following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty on 1 December 2009. There are several common themes stemming from a combined reading of the chapters. Firstly, the EU has sought to simultaneously pursue its security objectives and spread its values, such as democracy, the rule of law, and human rights, by encouraging reforms in its neighbourhood. However, it is increasingly evident that there are tensions and contradictions between these two objectives, which can be illuminated and better understood by considering another strand of literature, with which there has been little engagement in EU studies to date, namely the literature on human security. This book is the first to analyse these hugely topical developments in European security after the Lisbon Treaty. It was published as a special issue of Perspectives on European Politics and Society.

in European Security Governance and the European Neighbourhood after the Lisbon Treaty Sous la direction de KAUNERT Christian, LEONARD Sarah Publié en 2012-09
KAUNERT Christian
LEONARD Sarah
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This special issue of Perspectives on European Politics and Society derives from an international conference on European Security and Supranational Governance, which was held at the University of Salford, Greater Manchester, on 27-28 January 2011. It was sponsored by the European Commission (EC) and the Manchester Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence (JMCE), which is a partnership between the University of Manchester, Manchester Metropolitan University and the University of Salford. The EC’s funding took the form of a grant from the Jean Monnet Programme/Lifelong Learning Programme for the European Union Simulation (EUSIM) Project for 200912.Warm thanks are, therefore, due toboth theECand theManchester JMCE for their generous financial support, without which neither the conference nor this special issue would have seen the light of day. The main aim of the EUSIM Project is to bring the study and research of the EU closer to students of a wide variety of backgrounds. It is often thought that because of the sometimes awkward relationship of Britain with the EuropeanUnion (EU), students inBritain are not interested in, ormight even behostile to, studying or researching the EU. This project aims to encourage students to increase their critical knowledge of the EU through the application of a problem-based learning (PBL) approach to the ‘EU Simulation’ Jean Monnet module. The EU Simulation module supports students in becoming independent, enterprising problem-solvers through the examination of real-life EU policy problems. The scenario underpinning the EU Simulation in 2010-11 focused on European security and supranational governance. In addition to more traditional classes that introduced them to policymaking in the EU, students were given a policy scenario and asked to conduct negotiations in weekly sessions akin to Council meetings; these negotiations culminated in a session modelled upon a ‘real-life’ European Council summit. In addition, all students were given free access to the latest cutting-edge research on the topic by attending the conference and they will gain further insights through the publication of this special issue. Bringing together students, researchers and practitioners representing various institutions, including the EC, and coming from a large number of countries has considerably enhanced the understanding and the enthusiasm of the students, who might not have otherwise become interested in EUmatters.

Publié en 2012-04 Nom de la conférence Research Seminar on International Relations
KAUNERT Christian
LEONARD Sarah
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in Journal of European Public Policy Publié en 2012-04
KAUNERT Christian
LEONARD Sarah
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The development of the EU asylum and migration policy is often explained as the result of ‘venue-shopping’, that is, the move by policy-makers to an EU policy venue in order to avoid national constraints. This article demonstrates that, contrary to what would have been expected on the basis of this widespread view, EU co-operation on asylum matters has actually led to a rise in the legal standards applicable to asylum-seekers and refugees. This outcome can be mainly explained by broader changes that have gradually affected the EU ‘system of venues’ and have thereby decreased the likelihood of more restrictive measures being adopted in the EU asylum policy venue. This has important implications for the EU governance of asylum and migration in general.

Publié en 2012-04 Nom de la conférence Expert Workshop on ‘Germany's Role in the EU: Searching for a Useful Paradigm of National Leadership
LEONARD Sarah
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Publié en 2012-04 Nom de la conférence Research Seminar of the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies
KAUNERT Christian
LEONARD Sarah
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Publié en 2012-04 Nom de la conférence 53rd Annual International Studies Association (ISA) Convention
LEONARD Sarah
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in Refugee Survey Quarterly Publié en 2012
KAUNERT Christian
LEONARD Sarah
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in European Homeland Security Sous la direction de KAUNERT Christian, LEONARD Sarah, PAWLAK Patrik Publié en 2012
KAUNERT Christian
LEONARD Sarah
PAWLAK Patrik
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in European Homeland Security Sous la direction de KAUNERT Christian, LEONARD Sarah, PAWLAK Patrik Publié en 2012
KAUNERT Christian
LEONARD Sarah
PAWLAK Patrik
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Sous la direction de KAUNERT Christian, LEONARD Sarah, PAWLAK Patrik Publié en 2012
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This book examines the processes and factors shaping the development of homeland security policies in the European Union (EU), within the wider context of European integration. The EU functions in a complex security environment, with perceived security threats from Islamist terrorists, migration and border security issues, and environmental problems. In order to deal with these, the EU has undertaken a number of actions, including the adoption of the European Security Strategy in 2003, the Information Management Strategy of 2009, and the Internal Security Strategy of 2010. However, despite such efforts to achieve a more concerted European action in the field of security, there are still many questions to be answered about whether the European approach is really a strategic one. European Homeland Security addresses two major debates in relation to the development of homeland security in Europe. First, it reflects on the absence of ‘homeland security’ in European political debate and its potential consequences. Second, it examines the significant policy developments in the EU that suggest the influence of homeland security ideas, notably through policy transfer from the United States. The book will be of great interest to students of European security and EU politics, terrorism and counter-terrorism, security studies and IR.

Cooperation on asylum has significantly developed amongst the European Union Member States in recent years. This is remarkable given the sensitivity of asylum matters, which are inherently highly political. All the articles presented in this special issue aim to capture some aspects of the European Union fast changing asylum policy following the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon and the adoption of the Stockholm Programme in December 2009. The special issue examines the impact of these changes on asylum governance in the European Union, in particular whether, as a result of these changes, we can observe an increase in supranational governance in a policy area that was traditionally intergovernmental, with a strong focus on national sovereignty. As the articles in this special issue demonstrate, there have been many changes in the European Union polity, which European Union institutions have exploited by providing European Union legislation. As a result, there has been an important increase in supranational governance and significant steps have been taken towards establishing a “Common Area of Protection”. However, asylum matters are not governed supranationally yet. Actually, there is still a considerable way to go before all the objectives set in the area of asylum are fully met.

Publié en 2012-01 Nom de la conférence International Conference on ‘The Governance of Asylum and Migration in the European Union’
LEONARD Sarah
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in European Homeland Security Sous la direction de KAUNERT Christian, LEONARD Sarah, PAWLAK Patrik Publié en 2012
LEONARD Sarah
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As popular unrest spread across the Middle East in 2011 and caused several dictatorial regimes to fall, one of the main concerns of some European governments was that large numbers of asylum-seekers and migrants might try to reach Europe as a result of these momentous events. Following the arrival of about 3,000 irregular migrants and asylum-seekers on the Italian coast in the space of a few days in February 2011, most of whom were from Tunisia, the Italian government requested support from the European Union (EU) to deal with what it saw as an emergency situation. EU support mainly took the form of a joint patrolling operation in the central Mediterranean area, called ‘Joint Operation Hermes 2011’, which was designed to enhance border surveillance. Led by Italy, it also benefited from staff and equipment contributions from several other EU Member States and was coordinated by Frontex, the EU Agency that supports the coordination of operational cooperation among Member States in the field of border security (Frontex 2011). A few months earlier, Frontex had already hit the headlines when it deployed Rapid Border Intervention Teams (RABITs) in November 2010 in Greece to deal with the arrival of large numbers of asylum-seekers and migrants in the region of Evros at the Greek-Turkish border. Those teams comprised border guards from the 26 other EU Member States and Schengen-associated countries, who aimed to assist their Greek colleagues in various border control-related issues, such as the detection of illegal entries and the interviewing of intercepted migrants and asylum-seekers (Frontex 2010b). Thus, Frontex, which only started its operations in 2005, has already managed to craft an important role for itself as the EU agency that supports operational cooperation among EU Member States in external border controls. It is important to emphasise that this role has not always been uncontroversial (Léonard 2010). Demonstrations have taken place not only in front of the seat of the Agency in Warsaw, but also in other towns and cities where Frontex training sessions took place, such as in Lübeck in August 2008.1 Various non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have criticised the activities of Frontex for breaching, in their opinion, the rights of the migrants and asylum-seekers concerned (PRO ASYL 2008; Amnesty International and European Council on Refugees and Exiles 2010). Given these controversies, it is therefore intriguing that there has been only a limited amount of scholarly work on this EU agency to date. Most of these research papers and journal articles have focused on the activities of Frontex. Focusing on the issue of border management in the EU, Jorry (2007) has examined the extent to which Frontex is likely to contribute to the implementation of the concept of ‘integrated border management’ (IBM) and can be seen as a major step towards the development of an EU common policy on external borders. Carrera (2007) has also analysed the role played by Frontex in the implementation of the EU Border Management Strategy, with a specific focus on the joint operations coordinated by the agency in the Canary Islands. Pollak and Slominski (2009) have analysed the activities of Frontex through the lens of an experimentalist governance approach in order to question the extent to which Frontex has acquired organisational autonomy and has been accountable. In addition, Neal (2009) has examined the origins of Frontex from a security studies angle, focusing in particular on whether the establishment of Frontex resulted from attempts to securitize asylum and migration in the EU, while Léonard (2010) has examined the ways in which Frontex has contributed to the securitization of migration in the EU through the deployment of various practices. In contrast with this focus on the activities of Frontex and their consequences, relatively little consideration has been given to institutional issues, and in particular the question of why it was decided to establish an agency to deal with the coordination of EU Member States’ activities in the field of external border controls. Indeed, it would have been possible to increase cooperation on external border controls without necessarily establishing a new, separate body for that purpose; for example, through the development of new working groups in the Council. As shown by other contributions in this book, the development of EU cooperation to tackle a specific security issue does not always entail the establishment of an independent agency, as demonstrated by the examples of counter-terrorism and emergency and crisis management. It is therefore intriguing that it was decided to establish an agency in the case of external borders, whereas this was not the case for other homeland security issues. For this reason, this chapter examines why EU Member States decided to create Frontex in order to support increased cooperation in the field of migration controls by drawing upon the vast literature on EU agencies. It is structured into three main sections. First, it examines the rationales for setting up EU agencies in general. Second, drawing upon these insights, it analyses the policy debates leading to the choice of an ‘agency’ institutional set-up and the creation of Frontex. In the next section, which also builds on the existing scholarship on agencies in the EU, the chapter analyses the various control mechanisms over Frontex that have been established, before drawing some conclusions.

Publié en 2011-02 Nom de la conférence Research Seminar of the Migration Working Group
LEONARD Sarah
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Publié en 2011-02 Nom de la conférence Research Seminar of the Migration Working Group
LEONARD Sarah
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Publié en 2011-01 Nom de la conférence Research Seminar of the Department of Political Science, Social Sciences and Communication
LEONARD Sarah
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