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in Diseña Publication date 2021-09
CALIBRO design studio
DUNCAN Evennou
VERJAT Benoît
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Online images could be considered as traces of the dynamics of social issues. Concurrently, the same images are enrolled in vast algorithmic infrastructures. Specific research registers have been devised to account for, and experience, one or the other of such specificities. The scope of the present contribution is to introduce a possible crossing of the existing registers and to further the role of large image corpora visualizations beyond pure analytical or critical purposes. To this extent, the ʽDEPT.ʼ project is described. A series of visual artifacts —data- and media- visualizations, catalogs, tableaux, and scores― were conceived during the project in order to progressively bring online images to public and participatory settings so as to inquire into situated issues. The paper details the needs, intellectual frameworks, and methodological choices, along with the visual artifacts conceived in the project to develop online images as shared and collective expressions of the issues under inquiry.

En tant que forme d’organisation sociale de la production, la coopérative citoyenne lance un défi aux termes analytiques des sciences sociales : fréquemment analysée à l’aune de la « tension » entre ses objectifs militants et ses objectifs productifs, ses modes de régulation sont généralement stéréotypés. À partir d’une enquête portant sur trois coopératives citoyennes d’énergie renouvelable, cet article propose un modèle analytique permettant de poser à nouveaux frais la question de l’articulation des valeurs productives et militantes pesant sur les « entreprises sociales ». À travers les différentes épreuves d’organisation – formalisation du projet, recrutement des coopérants, financement, rédaction des statuts, décisions d’investissement, gestion des bénéfices –, l’analyse fait ressortir le caractère contingent et segmenté de l’articulation entre les performances militantes et productives de la coopérative. En dernière analyse, ce caractère contingent peut s’expliquer par l’existence d’une valeur spécifique orientant le travail d’organisation de l’entreprise sociale : l’augmentation de son rendement social.

in International Journal of Parliamentary Studies Publication date 2021-05
BAR-SIMANN-TOV Ittai
WAISMEL-MANOR Israel
LEVANON Asaf
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This research note introduces two novel indexes designed to measure legislative activity (ParlAct) and use of digital devices to maintain legislative functions (ParlTech) during the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic. It will also present a novel comprehensive dataset on the functioning of legislatures during a critical period of the pandemic, providing scores for 152 domestic legislatures on both the ParlAct and ParlTech indexes. It will be argued that both indexes could also serve as templates for future research on legislative activity during other pandemics, crises and contingencies.

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1ères lignes : Au sein de la littérature consacrée à l’analyse des relations entre pouvoirs politiques, administration et intérêts privés, l’Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a longtemps constitué un important cas d’étude . Pour le lecteur familier de ce vaste domaine de recherche, l’évocation de cette agence en charge de la protection environnementale aux ÉtatsUnis (intervenant dans de nombreux domaines allant de la pollution atmosphérique à l’usage des pesticides, en passant par la réglementation sur les substances toxiques ou l’eau potable) rappellera sans doute le débat qui avait opposé Dan Cook et Brian Wood dans l’American Political Science Review à la fin des années 1980 : alors que le premier voyait dans l’EPA le prototype d’une bureaucratie constamment ballotée entre l’influence de la présidence et celle du Congrès, le second soutenait au contraire que les « ressources » de l’agence et le « zèle » de ses membres lui conféraient une autonomie lui permettant d’ignorer, voire de déjouer, les coalitions d’intérêts défendus par les acteurs politiques

in European Security Publication date 2021-04-22
EGELAND Kjolv
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In February 2020, French president Emmanuel Macron invited all interested European states to a “strategic dialogue” on the supposed contribution of France’s nuclear arsenal to European collective security. While certain media commentators relayed Macron’s intervention with approbation and excitement, framing the proposal as an exciting new idea that, if implemented, might boost Europe’s clout on the world stage, the dominant reaction was one of ennui. After all, the argument for Euro-nukes is far from new. In fact, several (mostly French) actors have unsuccessfully attempted to persuade European policymakers of the necessity of European nuclear weapons cooperation for more than half a century. In this article, we investigate the history, merits, and longevity of the case for European nuclear arms. Drawing on secondary literature, policymakers’ writings, and two hitherto untapped surveys of European public opinion conducted by one of the authors, we argue that the case for Euro-nukes is critically flawed with respect to security, strategic autonomy, futurity, and democratic good governance. We maintain that the continuous resurfacing of the “zombie” case for Euro-nukes is made possible by powerful organisational interests, as well as conceptual reversification resulting in enduring contradictions between nuclear vulnerabilities and claims of protection and autonomy.

in Futures Edited by KEMP Sandra, ANDERSSON Jenny Publication date 2021-04-22
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This chapter reconnects modes of futures-making with the requirements of democracy by focusing on the naturalization of nuclear weapons and their removal from the realm of de- mocratic choice at a particular point in time. The chapter revolves around the concept of ‘nuclear eternity’ as a means of reducing public choices about the use of nuclear weapons. It critiques the idea that nuclear weapons have always been perceived as ‘here to stay’ and reassesses the dominant narrative about the 1960s as an emancipatory decade by arguing that the decade actually witnessed a significant shrinking of future po- litical possibilities. Finally, the chapter identifies three shapes of the future which pro- duce ‘nuclear eternity’—an absent post-nuclear future, an inconsistent post-nuclear future, and a disconnected post-nuclear future—and illustrates them with historical exam- ples

in Usbek & Rica Publication date 2021-04
HERVIEU-LÉGER Benoît
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in Site du CERI Publication date 2021-02-22
THERME Clément
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En 2021, il existe sur notre planète plus de 13 000 armes nucléaires dont la plupart ont une capacité de destruction supérieure à l’explosif qui a rasé la ville d’Hiroshima le 6 août 1945. Plus de 1600 d’entre elles, aux Etats-Unis et en Russie, sont en état d’alerte. Elles peuvent être lancées en moins de quinze minutes et une guerre impliquant moins de 1% des arsenaux nucléaires actuels mettrait en péril l’approvisionnement en nourriture de la planète. Au moins depuis l’invention de missiles balistiques intercontinentaux, qui ne peuvent pas être interceptés ou rappelés, la protection des populations contre une attaque nucléaire délibérée ou accidentelle n’est plus possible. Le conseil pour la science et la sécurité du Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists a ainsi considéré que le danger nucléaire contemporain demeurait, fin janvier 2021, à un niveau aussi élevé que l’an passé, le plus haut depuis le début de l’âge atomique.

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Le treizième congrès du Parti communiste du Viêt Nam a été placé sous le signe de la continuité. Le Parti contrôle toujours étroitement le pouvoir et son secrétaire général a été reconduit.

in EchoGéo Publication date 2021-02-02
MARTIN Benoit
RIO Antoine
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Entretien avec Éric Verdeil, Benoît Martin et Antoine Rio réalisé par Serge Weber le 18 décembre 2020 (en visioconférence) autour de l'ouvrage "Atlas des mondes urbains".

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We offer a series of reflective insights about the state and direction of studies related to the politics of regulation. Notably we argue that the field is characterized by persisting divisions between Americanists and Europeanists. Largely focused on the actions taken by political principals, the former regularly report a substantial politicization of regulatory behavior. Reflecting on recent developments in US politics however, we show that political influence could be overestimated in the United States. Symmetrically, this same influence could be underestimated by Europeanists, who for now have largely focused on regulators and agencies. This is notably suggested by a discussion of recent development in European politics, as revealed by contributions systematically measuring agency politicization in Western European democracies. On this basis, we identify some promising research questions and agendas for future studies on the politics of regulation.

in Private Health Insurance and the European Union Edited by BENOÎT Cyril, DEL SOL Marion, MARTIN Philippe Publication date 2021-01
DEL SOL Marion
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This publication has no abstract

in Private Health Insurance and the European Union Edited by BENOÎT Cyril, DEL SOL Marion, MARTIN Philippe Publication date 2021-01
DEL SOL Marion
8
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This publication has no abstract

in Private Health Insurance and the European Union Edited by BENOÎT Cyril, DEL SOL Marion, MARTIN Philippe Publication date 2021-01
7
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This publication has no abstract

Edited by BENOÎT Cyril, DEL SOL Marion, MARTIN Philippe Publication date 2021-01
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Research has paid little attention to date on how European Union law and regulation affect both the public-private mix in healthcare and the organization of private health insurance as an industry. Filling this gap, this collective book provides insights on the political economy of EU insurance regulation, its impact on private health insurers and on its interactions with domestic healthcare policy-making in four countries. Assembling original contributions drafted by a multidisciplinary team, Private Health Insurance and the European Union offers a thorough examination of a largely unrecognized source of EU influence in healthcare – and sheds a new light on the role played by private actors in social policy.

in Private Health Insurance and the European Union Edited by BENOÎT Cyril, DEL SOL Marion, MARTIN Philippe Publication date 2021-01
CORON Gaël
HOUSSOY Thomas
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This publication has no abstract

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This article presents the first reassessment of the strategic rationality and credibility of French nuclear weapons policy before 1974. Building on untapped primary material from across the world as well as technical analysis, it shows that early Cold War French nuclear weapon procurement and deployment are incompatible with a precise grand design and the requirements of strategic rationality. The first generation of French nuclear forces also lacked technical credibility, despite reliance on outside help. Several French officials knew about it, as did their allies and adversaries. These findings de-exceptionalise French nuclear history and challenge conventional wisdom about Cold War nuclear history.

Publication date 2020-10-30 Collection Atlas
ANSART Thomas
MARTIN Benoit
MITRANO Patrice
RIO Antoine
94
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Aux sources classiques des organisations internationales et des réseaux de villes, les auteurs de cet Atlas des mondes urbains ont confronté l'éventail des nouvelles possibilités offertes par le numérique, multiplié les échelles et se sont affranchis des spatialités territoriales usuelles. Voici une cartographie inédite de la planète des citadins. Sept humains sur dix vivent en ville. Des mégapoles se forment sur tous les continents. Partout le bâti s'étale et se standardise, les mondes ruraux disparaissent, les modes de vie s’uniformisent et, dans le même temps, les inégalités se creusent. La généralisation de l’urbain réchauffe la planète, détruit la biodiversité et nous rend encore plus vulnérables face au changement climatique. Mais les villes sont aussi notre bien commun. Elles sont des lieux de production de richesses, d’innovation, de création culturelle, de solidarité et de résilience. Elles fascinent par leur gigantisme, leurs foules et leurs innombrables activités, laissant dans l’ombre une autre réalité : la myriade de villes petites et intermédiaires qui composent l’essentiel des mondes urbains d’aujourd’hui. Celles des pays dits en développement, en particulier, dont les « basses technologies » sont loin d’affecter autant l’avenir de la planète que les métropoles mondialisées. Pour explorer les mondes urbains, les auteurs de cet atlas ont défriché de multiples champs hétéroclites. Aux sources classiques des organisations internationales et des réseaux de villes, ils ont confronté l’éventail des nouvelles possibilités offertes par le numérique, multiplié les échelles et se sont affranchis des spatialités territoriales usuelles. Voici une cartographie inédite de la planète des citadins.

in Handbook of Parliamentary Studies Edited by BENOÎT Cyril, ROZENBERG Olivier Publication date 2020-10
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This contribution introduces the Handbook of Parliamentary Studies. It first discusses the notion of ‘parliamentary studies’ before outlining the rationales for this editorial project and presenting its main findings, such as commonalities across a variety of disciplinary approaches, a recent renewed interest in legislatures’ rules and the resiliency of parliaments as institutions. After having presented the topic addressed by each contribution, the chapter emphasises the historical as well as conceptual affinities between parliamentarianism and encyclopaedism – an affinity that calls into question the current status of each apparatus.

in Le monde d’aujourd’hui. Les sciences sociales au temps de la Covid Edited by LAZAR Marc, PLANTIN Guillaume, RAGOT Xavier Publication date 2020-10
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Une analyse de l’impact de la Covid sur le fonctionnement des parlements dans le monde et une réflexion sur l’implication d’une digitalisation de leurs activités

in Handbook of Parliamentary Studies Edited by BENOÎT Cyril, ROZENBERG Olivier Publication date 2020-10
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What is the distinctive contribution of political science to the study of legislative institutions? And what has the study of such entities brought to political research? This paper argues that the answer to these questions is twofold. First, students of legislatures have amply demonstrated that legislative institutions do matter for the daily lives of modern societies – a statement that, as established in a first section, was far from evident in classical studies of political regimes, systems or elites. Second, we argue that legislative studies have actively contributed to our understanding of institutional change and strategic behaviour, arguably two of the most crucial areas of inquiry in political science.

This comprehensive Handbook takes a multidisciplinary approach to the study of parliaments, offering novel insights into the key aspects of legislatures, legislative institutions and legislative politics. Connecting rich and diverse fields of inquiry, it illuminates how the study of parliaments has shaped a wider understanding surrounding politics and society over the past decades. Through 26 thematic chapters, expert contributors analyse parliamentary institutions from various disciplinary perspectives (history, law, political science, political economy, sociology and anthropology). A wide range of approaches is covered, including the sociological study of members of parliaments, gender studies and the mathematical conceptualisation of legislatures. Exploring the history of parliament, the concepts and theories of parliamentarism, constitutional law, and the linkages between parliaments and the administrative state or with populism, this incisive Handbook provides a panoramic view of this institution. Chapters also map the main trends, patterns of developments and controversies related to parliaments, assessing the strengths and weaknesses of current research and identifying a range of promising avenues for further study. Drawing together international and comparative approaches, the Handbook of Parliamentary Studies will be a critical resource for academics and students of parliamentary politics, political science, political economy, public law and political history. It also provides a vital foundation for researchers of legislative and political institutions.

in Handbook of Parliamentary Studies Edited by BENOÎT Cyril, ROZENBERG Olivier Publication date 2020-10
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The study of legislative-administrative relations developed alongside the emergence of modern democratic institutions, as explored in a wide range of academic literature. This chapter offers an introduction to this literature. Contrasting American and European developments in the field, the first section provides an overview of the evolution of these debates, from both normative and positive angles. A second section discusses the key findings of the positive approach, first by taking a principal’s perspective: how and why legislatures try to influence administrative behaviour. It then take’s the agent’s perspective: how and why bureaucratic agents respond. The chapter concludes by drawing some implications for future research on legislative-administrative relations.

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This video is based on the following research on nuclear vulnerabilities, from the Nuclear Knowledges program at Sciences Po, CERI

in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Publication date 2020-08-03
EGELAND Kjolv
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Did the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki shorten the war, and were they necessary to force the Japanese surrender? Many people believe the answer to both questions is yes: In dropping the Bomb, America chose the lesser of two evils. Although historians have long challenged this narrative as wrong or misleading, a significant number of Europeans still believe it. That is the primary result of a recent survey of European views on nuclear affairs generally and the atomic bombings of Japan specifically. The survey, carried out in October 2019, involved approximately 7,000 respondents aged 18 and upward, carefully selected to ensure representative samples from Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Turkey, and the United Kingdom...

A factor that may account for the largely unanticipated victory of Brexit in 2016 is the difference in engagement, mobilization, and, ultimately, turnout between those for whom the question of Brexit was a valence issue (a dry and almost technical question of determining the policies by which uncontroversial shared ends can be achieved) and those for whom it was a positional issue (a question of raw, almost visceral, political preference). The declining appeal of valence politics may reveal a phenomenon that goes beyond Brexit and Britain: a change in the nature and character of contemporary electoral competition that may help to explain the newly resurgent populism characteristic of Western liberal democracies.

in The Conversation Publication date 2020-07
THIÉBAUT Cyrille
DESTRI Chiara
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Au premier tour des élections municipales le 15 mars dernier, le taux d’abstention a atteint un niveau historique, mais peu surprenant au regard de la crise sanitaire, de 55,3 %. Au second tour, le 28 juin, seuls 41,6 % de ceux appelés à voter se sont déplacés aux urnes. [Premier paragraphe]

in The National Interest Publication date 2020-06-23
HERZOG Stephen
FIALHO Fabrício
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Polls in the United States and nine allied countries in Europe and Asia show that public support for a nuclear test is very low. If the Trump administration conducts a test, then it shouldn’t expect backing from Americans or its closest U.S. partners.

For Torben Iversen, capitalism is not responsible for the crisis democracies are currently facing. Responding to this argument, Jenny Andersson underlines the limits of this optimistic interpretation.

Pour Torben Iversen, le capitalisme ne serait pas responsable de la crise actuelle des démocraties. Jenny Andersson et Cyril Benoît lui répondent et soulignent les limites de cette interprétation optimiste

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