Co-auteur
  • BERSON Clémence (2)
  • GERGAUD Olivier (2)
  • VALAT Emmanuel (2)
  • WASMER Etienne (2)
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Type de Document
  • Working paper (4)
  • Article (1)
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En se basant sur les données d’un testing mené en France, ce policy brief montre comment l’organisation du recrutement affecte la discrimination ethnique à l’embauche. Notre échantillon est constitué de grandes entreprises multi-établissements, au sein desquelles nous distinguons deux types d’organisation du recrutement : le recrutement effectué par un service RH centralisé au niveau de l’entreprise et le recrutement effectué uniquement au niveau de l’établissement, généralement par des managers. Nos résultats indiquent que le passage par un service centralisé diminue de façon significative le niveau de discrimination dans les suites données aux candidatures : par rapport au recrutement organisé localement, on observe une diminution de l’écart du taux de rappel entre les candidats ayant des noms à consonance « hexagonale » et ceux ayant un nom à consonance “maghrébine”. Cette étude montre qu’agir sur l’organisation des recrutements dans les grandes entreprises peut être envisagé comme un outil relativement efficace de lutte contre les discriminations à l’embauche lors de la première étape du recrutement.

Publié en 2020-02 Collection Sciences Po LIEPP Working Paper : 104
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In this work, we assess how organization of recruitment in large companies affects ethnic discrimination. We consider large multi-establishment companies and distinguish two types of organization of recruitment: hiring made through a human resources (HR) department at a centralized level of the company and hiring made only at the level of the establishment concerned by the position, generally by managers in charge of recruitment. Our results indicate that access to a centralized HR department in the selection of applications has an important effect on the level of discrimination: this type of organization of recruitment results in a significant decrease in the probability that the applicant of presumed "French" origin is selected alone.

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This paper describes a database of 1,243,776 notable people and 7,184,575 locations (Geolinks) associated with them throughout human history. We first describe in details the various approches and procedures adopted to extract the relevant informationfrom their Wikipedia biographies and then analyze the database.

Publié en 2016-02 Collection Sciences Po Economics Discussion Papers : 2016-03
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This paper describes a database of 1,243,776 notable people and 7,184,575 locations (Geolinks) associated with them throughout human history (3000BCE-2015AD). We first describe in details the various approaches and procedures adopted to extract the relevant information from their Wikipedia biographies and then analyze the database. Ten main facts emerge. 1. There has been an exponential growth over time of the database, with more than 60% of notable people still living in 2015, with the exception of a relative decline of the cohort born in the XVIIth century and a local minimum between 1645 and 1655. 2. The average lifespan has increased by 20 years, from 60 to 80 years, between the cohort born in 1400AD and the one born in 1900AD. 3. The share of women in the database follows a U-shape pattern, with a minimum in the XVIIth century and a maximum at 25% for the most recent cohorts. 4. The fraction of notable people in governance occupations has decreased while the fraction in occupations such as arts, literature media and sports has increased over the centuries; sports caught up to arts and literature for cohorts born in 1870 but remained at the same level until the 1950s cohorts; and eventually sports came to dominate the database after 1950. 5. The top 10 visible people born before 1890 are all non-American and have 10 different nationalities. Six out of the top 10 born after 1890 are instead U.S. born citizens. Since 1800, the share of people from Europe and the U.S. in the database declines, the number of people from Asia and the Southern Hemisphere grows to reach 20% of the database in 2000. Coincidentally, in 1637, the exact barycenter of the base was in the small village of Colombey-les-Deux-Eglises (Champagne Region in France), where Charles de Gaulle lived and passed away. Since the 1970s, the barycenter oscillates between Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. 6. The average distance between places of birth and death follows a U-shape pattern: the median distance was 316km before 500AD, 100km between 500 and 1500AD, and has risen continuously since then. The greatest mobility occurs between the age of 15 and 25. 7. Individuals with the highest levels of visibility tend to be more distant from their birth place, with a median distance of 785km for the top percentile as compared to 389km for the top decile and 176km overall. 8. In all occupations, there has been a rise in international mobility since 1960. The fraction of locations in a country different from the place of birth went from 15% in 1955 to 35% after 2000. 9. There is no positive association between the size of cities and the visibility of people measured at the end of their life. If anything, the correlation is negative. 10. Last and not least, we find a positive correlation between the contemporaneous number of entrepreneurs and the urban growth of the city in which they are located the following decades; more strikingly, the same is also true with the contemporaneous number or share of artists, positively affecting next decades city growth; instead, we find a zero or negative correlation between the contemporaneous share of “militaries, politicians and religious people” and urban growth in the following decades.

Publié en 2014-04 Collection IZA Discussion Paper Series : 8150
COMBES Pierre-Philippe
DECREUSE Bruno
TRANNOY Alain
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The paper investigates the link between the over-exposure of African immigrants to unemployment in France and their under-representation in jobs in contact with customers. We build a two-sector matching model with ethnic sector-specific preferences, economy-wide employer discrimination, and customer discrimination in jobs in contact with customers. The outcomes of the model allow us to build a test of ethnic discrimination in general and customer discrimination in particular. We run the test on French individual data in a cross-section of local labor markets (Employment Areas). Our results show that there is both ethnic and customer discrimination in the French labor market.