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  • ANDREOTTI Alberta (1)
  • HALPERN Charlotte (1)
  • LE GALÈS Patrick (1)
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  • Communication non publiée (5)
  • Article (3)
  • Rapport (2)
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L'un des éléments qui caractérisent le processus de mondialisation de l'économie est le développement de la logistique du fret comme secteur stratégique pour déterminer les avantages concurrentiels des régions urbaines. Cette étude analyse le lien entre l'évolution du marché, la réorganisation de l'Etat et le développement des infrastructures logistiques urbaines. Le point d'entrée de cette analyse est l'étude des politiques qui ont produit et gouverné au fil du temps deux marchés alimentaires de gros européens : le MIN Rungis et les Marchés Généraux de Milan. Leur comparaison explique comment les changements structurels ont influencé leur évolution et pourquoi aujourd'hui deux marchés de gros qui étaient initialement très similaires d'un point de vue analytique différent, ont deux policy outcome très différents. En utilisant une approche théorique et méthodologique basée sur les contributions du néo-institutionnalisme historique et de l'économie politique urbaine, le rôle des groupes d'intérêts, des acteurs politiques, des règles politiques et du marché est éclairé. Ces facteurs sont liés entre eux pour expliquer la policy conversion observée pour le MIN Rungis et la policy drift dans le cas de Milan. Enfin, les processus politiques qui ont mené à ces résultats sont expliqués en termes de mécanismes causaux. L'analyse met en évidence le rôle central des règles de politique locale et du contexte politique dans la détermination de la capacité des groupes d'intérêt locaux à influencer les processus décisionnels, et l'effet de leur mobilisation sur le développement de ces infrastructures urbaines.

in Governare Milano nel nuovo millennio Sous la direction de ANDREOTTI Alberta Publié en 2019-03
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Questo contributo ha lo scopo di offrire un quadro empirico dei processi di governo che hanno interessato i Mercati generali di Milano, gestiti dalla società partecipata dal Comune di Milano Sogemi SPA, e di spiegarne l'esito considerando il periodo che segue Tangentopoli (1992). Sarà evidenziata la dimensione politica dei Mercati generali, il loro ruolo nel sistema distributivo alimentare, e gli effetti della loro inserzione urbana sia sugli obiettivi delle politiche pubbliche volte a governare lo sviluppo dell'infrastruttura che sulle difficoltà relative alla loro implementazione. Per comprendere la mancata implementazione dei diversi progetti presentati al fine di riorganizzare la funzione urbana dell'area e il funzionamento dei Mercati generali, il capitolo evidenzia il ruolo svolto dai diversi attori che si sono mobilitati, la rilevanza della configurazione istituzionale nell'orientare le loro strategie di azione e la rilevanza dei mutamenti politici nel definire l'esito delle politiche. Il contributo si articola in quattro sezioni. La prima descrive le caratteristiche strutturali dei Mercati generali, e l'evoluzione del loro ruolo nel sistema locale. La seconda, offre una sintesi delle trasformazioni economiche occorse nel settore della distribuzione alimentare evidenziando il ruolo degli assetti regolativi a livello locale e nazionale. La terza parte analizza i processi di governo dell'infrastruttura focalizzando l'attenzione sul ciclo politico, la dimensione organizzativa e la configurazione istituzionale. Nelle conclusioni è presentato un quadro interpretativo che spiega le difficoltà del processo di policy nei termini di una debole capacità di azione collettiva.

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Il contributo sia apre con un’analisi delle dinamiche e delle determinanti che hanno guidato le scelte localizzative delle infrastrutture logistiche nell’area metropolitana di Milano. La prevalenza dei fattori di mercato e dei meccanismi della rendita fondiaria dei suoli suburbani e delle aree industriali dismesse ha alimentato un processo di sprawl logistico. Questo esito si presenta come un esito a basso livello di efficienza dal punto di vista del valore strategico della logistica distributiva per lo sviluppo economico e la competitivitá territoriale della regione logistica milanese. La geografia economica economica della logistica viene successivamente messa in relazione con le caratteristiche dominanti delle forme di organizzazione del lavoro. Viene messo in evidenza come vengano privilegiate forme organizzative ad alta intensitá di lavoro, elevata informalitá, fragilitá delle tutele lavorative come strategia di estrazione di valore. La creazione di valore aggiunto tramite processi di automazione, innovazione nella gestione dei flussi informativi e integrazione della supply chain non sono gli elementi dominanti della logistica distributiva dell’area milanese. Nella terza parte del contributo vengono analizzati i flussi delle merci alimentari ponendo particolare attenzione alla rilevanza che questi hanno sul totale dei flussi di merce movimentati a livello regionale. Lo studio si conclude con un approfondimento sui temi della ciclologistica e della logistica collaborativa per la distribuzione delle merci alimentari nei contesti urbani.

The analysis done in CREATE highlights the critical role played by political and institutional conflicts in a context of exacerbated fragmentation and the extent to which a large variety of actors, namely different levels of government, technical agencies, political parties, elite groups and professional networks, compete in order to shape transport governance and the distribution of transport policy resources. This was achieved through continuous institutional reforms, major conflicts and competition strategies, and the development of highly visible policy initiatives and projects.By contrast to other cities under study in WP4, where consensus-seeking strategies account for policy change over time, competition emerges as the main driver for change in the case of the Paris and Ile-de-France region: competition between levels of government, between political parties, between transport companies and between social and economic groups. Together, this accounts for the coexistence over a long period of time of two highly differentiated models of urban and spatial planning in the capital-city region: on the one hand a liveable, sustainable and compact model in which the automobile is integrated in a larger regional sustainable transport system, and on the other hand, a regional growth model which primarily relies on the automobile in order to ensure daily accessibility for commuters to the core metropolitan area. Interestingly, such levels of competition have not led to inertia and the report documents the ways in which demographics and urbanization dynamics were instrumental in triggering various forms of collective action across the region. In terms of transport policy developments and transport behaviours, the evolution of transport policy objectives, resources and tools sheds light on both the “What’s” (substance) and the “How’s” (governance) of transport policy change. On the one hand, it shows how a sustainable approach to transport planning and policy-making progressively emerged at the margins of the transport policy sector, through the diffusion of alternative representations and policy solutions, and by drawing on small-scale innovations. But on the other hand, the evolution of transport policy objectives, resource and tools also highlight how state elites and networks are able to successfully resist bottom-up pressures and maintain, in a number of cases, a state-led approach to transport planning in the capital-city region that prioritizes its role as the national powerhouse. Acknowledging the continued coexistence of both dynamics as well as their interplay over time contributes to better understanding remaining spatial disparities in terms of transport policy developments - a result that echoes the analysis done in WP3 regarding individual/collective choices pertaining to transportation in Paris and the Ile-de-France region. A shift away from the automotive city undoubtedly took place in the Paris Ilede- France region, and the development of stage 3 policies is precisely documented. Yet this result remains ambiguous: this evolution is unevenly spread – both socially and spatially, recent conflicts over specific transport policy initiatives confirmed the permanence of high resistance capacities and the ability of a number of new entrants and old players to draw on new technologies in order to promote car-based forms of mobility.

This article addresses the issue of policy change and its consequences on the organizational field and institutional context, looking at the role of an instrument transfer process. We adopt a political sociology approach to policy instruments to account for the impact that the introduction of a securitarian instrument, the mayoral order, had on the implementation process of a social policy. Through a genealogy of the instrument we identify a constitutive, normative and cognitive dimension. Our aim is to explain the interaction between these institutional dimensions, the re-definition of the organizational field of the policy, and the dynamics of metropolitan politics. Following a synthesis of the policy process and the institutional arrangements where the policy is implemented, we show how the instrument transfer triggered a division within the organizational field, and the rise of institutional tensions amongst local authorities. In the conclusion, we identify the institutional dimensions of the instruments and the policy implementation scale as elements that are to interact with public-private relationships and institutional arrangements, and that have an impact on implementation process and policy outcome.

Publié en 2016-03 Nom de la conférence American Association of Geographers Annual Meeting 2016, San Francisco
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This paper discusses an analytical approach to address the role of urban governance modes in shaping the development and the regulation of major logistics infrastructures within the frame of the economic globalization process. The contribution accounts for the factors that influence the capacity of local governance institutional settings in reacting to structural market changes seeking for the maintenance of competitive advantages of urban logistics infrastructures. A theoretical approach is outlined to provide possible explanation of two cases presenting diverging outcomes: the Marché d’Interet National de Rungis, located in the Paris metropolitan area, and the Mercati Generali of Milan. The attention is focused on the institutional configuration they are embedded in, and on the urban and economic policies have been implemented to regulate the development of these infrastructures. The conclusion accounts for the main institutional elements that have shaped the development of the fresh-food wholesale market in Paris.

Publié en 2015-11 Nom de la conférence Seminar Cities are back in town. Presentation of the PhD students’ work of the Cities research program
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The paper aims at testing a theoretical framework to study the role of urban governance processes in regulating the development of urban wholesale fresh food markets, considered as key urban infrastructures facing the pressures linked to the logistic revolution of the perishable food supply chain. As other urban infrastructures, they can be considered as the results of political, social and economic forces compromises. A path dependence theoretical approach and a neo-institutional framework are developed to trace the change of infrastructural policies. The preliminary interpretations of the Milanese case are presented.

Publié en 2015-11 Nom de la conférence Socio-spatial transformations in EU cities: gentrification, polarization, conflicts
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This contribution aims to test the global city model looking at the change patterns of the socio-professional and occupational structure of the Paris metropolitan region. Two analysis are proposed in comparing different spatial scales: the location quotients for the different occupational sectors and socio-professional structure between the metropolitan region and France as a whole; the spatialization of the socio-professional structure within the petite couronne and for the whole metropolitan region, adopting also a gender perspective. Two apparently conflicting change patterns are identified. Some sectors that are presented in the literature as typical of the global city model, are actually growing faster within the metropolitan area. Nevertheless, the incidence of lower strata of the occupational structure and of some service sectors are decreasing in their importance in the metropolitan area, despite the increase of the labor force in most of them. Considering the gender segregation pattern, the economic structure of Paris Metropolitan Region may be said to give women the opportunity to take a better socio-economic position in the activities closely related to private enterprises and to global tertiary sector. These analysis show how the model of the “global city” is just partially realized: we observe trends of re-structuring of the urban economy much more complex than the theorized dualisation process Globalization is still an ongoing process: it is not a unique and homogeneous trend but operates as multi-dimensional force of change, with different outcomes in different geographical and institutional contexts. The shape that global cities are assuming cannot be considered as a definitive one, but just as a passage towards something else that, in our view, can be hardly defined in an unambiguous way.

Partendo dal dibattito teorico scaturito dal modello della città globale proposto da Saskia Sassen, l’articolo analizza il mutamento della struttura economica e sociale della regione metropolitana di Parigi. L’analisi della densità localizzativa delle attività economiche, mostra un processo di de-specializzazione, affiancato a livello nazionale da una tendenza alla professionalizzazione. La dimensione spaziale ha poi un ruolo nella localizzazione delle categorie socio-professionali superiori e inferiori, associata a una densità localizzativa del genere femminile maggiore per le prime e per quelle intermedie. Nelle conclusioni si sostiene che il modello della città globale ha una portata limitata. Il processo di globalizzazione dell’economia conduce a mutamenti situati che possono includere la de-specializzazione dell’economia urbana e una professionalizzazione del genere femminile.

Research Report for Esta-Economia e Sostenibilità, La Food Policy di Milano, WP1 Milan Food System Assessment.

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