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  • LE GALÈS Patrick (14)
  • POLLARD Julie (10)
  • LASCOUMES Pierre (7)
  • BRUGIDOU Mathieu (4)
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Type de Document
  • Partie ou chapitre de livre (29)
  • Communication non publiée (21)
  • Article (19)
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in Politiques publiques 3. Les politiques publiques sous Sarkozy Publié en 2012-01-30
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L'environnement et le développement durable ont fait l'objet d'une attention politique et sociale sans précédents pendant le quinquennat Sarkozy : déclarations volontaristes, réformes ambitieuses, etc. Pour autant, l'interprétation globale des réformes et des politiques conduites ne saurait se limiter à la seule analyse des discours politiques volontaristes d'un président nouvellement élu ou cherchant à remobiliser ses soutiens en prévision de rendez-vous électoraux à mi-parcours. Au-delà des effets d'annonce, l'enjeu consiste à s'interroger sur les effets à plus long terme de ces réformes et politiques sur le pilotage de l'action publique environnementale, les politiques sectorielles et la représentation des intérêts environnementaux. Le chapitre s'organise en trois parties : la mise en politique des enjeux d'environnement et de développement durable, les principales réformes et politiques qui ont marqué le quinquennat, et enfin, l'analyse, succincte, des principaux effets observés.

Why have some cities in Europe been able to achieve a shift from the car-oriented city towards more sustainable modes of transport? How can other parts of Europe and the EuroMed draw lessons from CREATE? In order to answer these fundamental questions, the CREATE (Congestion Reduction in Europe, Advancing Transport Efficiency) project’s main objective is to reduce road congestion in European cities by encouraging a switch from cars to more sustainable modes of transport. Among other valuable lessons, the CREATE project shows how strong urban governance contributes to the shift towards the liveable city.

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Hussein Kassim and Handley Stevens provide a timely assessment of the EU’s role in the transformation of the aviation sector. Based on a thick and detailed empirical knowledge of the field, the authors analyse why and how such a comprehensive policy framework, encompassing all areas of the aviation sector and with farreaching consequences both on member states and beyond EU borders, was developed in such a short period of time at EU level. The book also makes several important contributions to the study of European policies and of Europeanisation (...).

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Some of the economic advanced European cities appear to have decoupled the correlation between economic growth a car ownership and car use. The research project CREATE funded by the European Commission is aimed at identifying the reasons and framework conditions for this turnaround by analyzing historic data of five European capital cities (Vienna, London, Paris, Copenhagen, Berlin). Each of these cities implemented different strategies to achieve a more sustainable transport network influencing the mobility behavior, in particular, car use. The City of Vienna, for example, changed their transport policies from a more car-oriented transport masterplans in the past to a push-and-pull strategy by improving the public transport supply, mainly based on the extension of the underground network, and at the same time implementing pedestrian areas and parking restrictions in the city, which are still enlarged continuously. The mode share of car use (driver and passenger) decreases from 40 % early in the 1990’ies to 27 % in 2014. However, the ambiguous goal of the current city development plan is to reach a share of car use of 20 % in 2025. However, despite these core elements of transport policies a lot of supporting transport measures and other framework conditions need to be considered. This paper presents the analysis of cause and effects in the City of Vienna and a cross-comparison among all five European cities analyzed in the CREATE project.

This paper contributes to recent academic debates on mobility and transport by exploring the emergence of innovative tram-based transport solutions in medium-sized and somewhat peripheral regions in Europe. More precisely, we argue that the profound transformations undergone by rail transport over the past two decades has contributed to weakening existing governance structures, thus opening numerous opportunities for new entrants, technical innovations and original forms of territorial cooperation. The comparative analysis of four mobility strategies (France, The Netherlands, Germany and the United Kingdom) demonstrates the ability of medium-sized cities to develop innovative transport solutions by adapting existing networks .

Based on a comparative assessment of the development of new and improved tram projects in the five SINTROPHER partner regions, this study explores the added value of transnational cooperation for the diffusion of cost-effective transport solutions in Europe. The analysis contributes to wider academic and professional debates on evolving patterns of urban mobility through a series of three contrasting hypothesis. It is organised around three main objectives: 1) Assess the scope for collective learning among SINTROPHER Partners, by focusing on decision-making processes; 2) Identify (legal, administrative, technical) challenges to technology transfer in each partner regions; 3) Explore the actual scope for transnational cooperation in the development of new or improved tram projects in and outside North-Western Europe.

Why do people declare themselves to be highly concerned by ecology in the long run but vary over time in their commitment to the environmental cause? This article seeks to address this question by revisiting the environmental policy hypothesis. More precisely, it argues that such an assumption has not been demonstrated empirically partly because of data unavailability and to the choice of indicators. This article contributes to the wider debate on the disconnect between environmental concern and behaviour between 1971 and 2008 by using the choice and combination of policy instruments as an indicator of evolving relationship between the governing and the governed. This exploratory approach suggests that environmental behaviour may be increasingly channelled by environmental policies and less so by other forms of (individual or collective) mobilisation.

in Sustainable Aviation Futures Publié en 2013-11-15
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Drawing on an original dataset, this chapter demonstrates the growing role airport infrastructures and their managing authorities have come to play in shaping airport politics that is, how, by whom and where airports are built, modernized and expanded. Yet they have received little attention in recent attempts to characterize and explain the transformations of global aviation politics. This chapter suggests focusing on airport companies as an attempt to characterize their long-term trajectories both in terms of their properties and in terms of their operating contexts. First it shows that airport companies have developed into full-blown economic actors, which enjoy greater levels of autonomy through the systematic accumulation of resources, the diversification of revenues, and new alliances with the global finance and consulting industry. Second, the chapter discusses the role of domestic regulatory reforms as the main driver for change in major European airport markets. Third, it demonstrates the extent to which the complex interplay between public and private ownership has shaped the rescaling of the territorial dimension of airport activities, thus explaining the limited impact of anti-airport campaigns over the long-term development of major European hubs. This chapter has larger practical and research implications in that it demonstrates the need to go beyond a functional and context-dependent approach to airport infrastructures and managing companies.

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Ce troisième volet de portraits d'entreprise consacrés à celles qui gèrent des aéroports permettra de s'interroger sur l'évolution des activités de gestion aéroportuaire. Quels sont les effets liés à la double logique de privatisation et, dans certains cas, de financiarisation des activités aéroportuaires sur les opérateurs qui en assurent la gestion ? Quelles ont été les stratégies développées par les opérateurs dans différents pays européens pour bénéficier de capacités accrues de financement et renforcer leur autonomie dans les choix liés à leur développement? Centré sur l'opérateur britannique BAA plc, ce portrait permettra de rendre compte des contraintes, notamment en temps de crise économique, liées à un choix de développement centré sur les activités non aéroportuaires.

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