Co-auteur
  • BELLONE Flora (16)
  • MUSSO Patrick (14)
  • GUILLOU Sarah (13)
  • GAFFARD Jean-Luc (10)
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Type de Document
  • Article (34)
  • Working paper (19)
  • Partie ou chapitre de livre (8)
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in Comité de suivi du Crédit d'impôt pour la compétitivité et l'emploi Publié en 2015-07
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Créé par la loi de finances rectificative du 29 décembre 2012, le crédit d’impôt pour la compétitivité et l’emploi (CICE) est en vigueur depuis janvier 2013. Après une phase d’apprentissage dont les précédents rapports de ce comité ont analysé les conséquences, il peut être considéré comme entré dans sa phase de maturité. Ce constat vaut pour les entreprises : tout indique que celles-ci ont maintenant une bonne connaissance des implications comptables du dispositif, de son fonctionnement et des obligations déclaratives qu’il comporte. L’hypothèse d’un non recours significatif peut désormais être écartée. Le même constat vaut aussi pour les administrations : les écarts entre source fiscale et source sociale sur le montant du CICE sont devenus très faibles. La question principale est donc désormais celle de l’effet du dispositif sur les comportements d’investissement, de prix et d’emploi des entreprises, et, au-delà de ces variables, sur la croissance, le chômage, l’innovation et le commerce extérieur. Il importe également de savoir s’il a été à l’origine d’un dialogue social de qualité au sein des entreprises. [Résumé Rapport]

This paper analyzes the effect of environmental policies on the direction of energy innovation across countries over the period 1990-2012. Our novelty is to use threshold regression models to allow for discontinuities in policy effectiveness depending on a country's relative competencies in renewable and fossil fuel technologies. We show that the dynamic incentives of environmental policies become effective just above the median level of relative competencies. In this critical second regime, market-based policies are moderately effective in promoting renewable innovation, while commandand-control policies depress fossil based innovation. Finally, market-based policies are more effective to consolidate a green comparative advantage in the last regime. We illustrate how our approach can be used for policy design in laggard countries.

Les réformes qui ont conduit à la libéralisation des marchés de l’énergie ont considérablement influencé le comportement d’innovation des utilités électriques dans certains pays. Aux Etats-Unis, elles ont provoqué une diminution de l’investissement en R&D environnementale de ces entreprises, mais aussi des dépôts de brevets des équipementiers. En ce qui concerne l’Europe, l’existence d’une influence ou pas de ces réformes sur les dépôts de brevets verts n’a pas été clairement démontrée. L’objet de cet article est précisément de répondre à cette question à partir d’un échantillon des principales utilités électriques ayant déposé leurs brevets à l’Office Européen des Brevets sur la période 1980-2005.

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This paper analyses in what extent innovation contributes to the productivity premium of exporters. We start by performing non parametric tests on TFP distributions on different groups of firms characterized by their export and innovation behavior. We show that the TFP distributions of exporters and innovators stochastically dominate those of non exporters and of non innovators, respectively. We pursue with OLS regressions and show that the export premium, defined as the productivity advantage of exporters over non-exporters, is robust to the introduction of innovation statistics. We conclude that export and innovation each have specific mechanisms in their relationship with productivity. The contribution of innovation abilities remains however small: once controlled for the firm size, its ownership, and its innovation abilities, the residual export premium is still around 3%. Two additional results are found. First, both process and product innovations are associated with higher productivity when process innovation is strictly defined. Second, when accounting for distance to export markets, the export premium remains significant for global exporters only, whereas that of intra-Europe exporters vanishes. From these findings, we conclude that, beyond innovative abilities and mere size advantage, specific export-related competencies, such as specific managerial competencies or specific human capital, takes an important part in the success of Global exporters.

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We propose the concept of regional alignment to suggest that synergistic relations among the scientific expertise, technological specialization and industry composition of regions affect regional productivity growth. In this paper, we test an extended conditional β-convergence model using data on 94 French departments (NUTS3) for the period 2001-2011. Our results indicate that a conditional β-convergence is associated with a σ-divergence process in the total factor productivity (TFP) growth of French regions. This process is strongly affected by the level of regional alignment. Indeed, we find evidence that regional alignment both directly and indirectly influences regional productivity growth. The indirect effect of regional alignment materializes through its leverage on R&D investment, which is one of the most important drivers of productivity growth. Moreover, using a heterogeneous coefficients model, we show that the positive effect of regional alignment on TFP growth increases with the industrial diversity of regions, which suggests that regional alignment increases the value of Jacobs externalities more than Marshall-ArrowRomer (MAR) externalities. KEY

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We use comparable micro level panel data for 14 countries and a set of identically specified empirical models to investigate the relationship between exports and productivity. Our overall results are in line with the big picture that is by now familiar from the literature: Exporters are more productive than non-exporters when observed and unobserved heterogeneity are controlled for, and these exporter productivity premia tend to increase with the share of exports in total sales; there is strong evidence in favour of self-selection of more productive firms into export markets, but nearly no evidence in favour of the learning-by-exporting hypothesis. We document that the exporter premia differ considerably across countries in identically specified empirical models. In a meta-analysis of our results we find that countries that are more open and have more effective government report higher productivity premia. However, the level of development per se does not appear to be an explanation for the observed cross-country differences.

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The paper analyzes the link between financial constraints and firms' export decisions, using a large micro-level data set on French manufacturing firms over the 1996-2004 period. Our main finding is that firms enjoying better ex-ante financial heath are more likely to start exporting. This results contrasts with the previous empirical literature which found evidence that participation to exports market improves a firm financial health but not that export starters display specific ex-ante financial advantages. By contrast, our result supports the view that financial constraints act as a barrier to export participation. This finding has important policy implications as it suggests that, in presence of financial markets imperfections, public intervention can be called for to help efficient but financially constrained firms to overcome the sunk entry costs into export markets and expand their activities abroad.

in Revue de l'OFCE Publié en 2006-06
BELLONE Flora
MUSSO Patrick
QUÉRÉ Michel
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In this paper, we analyse post-entry and pre-exit performance of French manufacturing firms using a dataset covering 14 industries over the period 1990-2002. Our purpose is to shed light on the working of market selection mechanisms within French manufacturing industries. We found that market selection in France rightly operates in favour of more productive firms, but displays some potential inefficiency in selecting more severely new firms compared to mature firms. This claim is based on three results. First, on average, young firms fail to survive when they are faced with a small productivity disadvantage with respect to incumbents. By contrast, mature firms exit the market only when they are confronted by a large, persistent, and increasing productivity gap with their surviving counterparts. Second, we show that successful entrants do not easily catch up to the average size of the industry despite the fact that they exhibit significant TFP and profitability advantages over incumbents. This reveals the existence of barriers to growth for young firms. Thirdly, we show that, on the whole, productivity improvements due to market selection mechanisms within French manufacturing industries are primarily due to market share reallocation across incumbents and that the net entry effect is weak relative to the findings for other industrialised countries.

in Innovation, Industrial Dynamics and Structural Transformation Publié en 2007
FONTANA Roberto
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We provide empirical evidence on market positioning by firms, in terms of market niche, distance from technological frontier and dispersion. We focus on the switch industry, a sub-market of the Local Area Network industry, in the nineties. Market positioning is a function of the type of firms (incumbents versus entrants), market size and contestability as well as firm competencies. We find that incumbents specialize in high-end segments and disperse their product in a larger spectrum of the market. Instead, entrants focus on specific market niches. Market size, market contestability and firm competencies are also important determinants of product location.

in Applied Evolutionary Economics and the Knowledge-based Economy Publié en 2006
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