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in Cultural Integration of Immigrants in Europe Sous la direction de ALGAN Yann Publication date 2013-01
LANDAIS Camilla
SENIK Claudia
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The French Republican model appears as a polar case among the different cultural integration models. Dating back to the French Revolution and the Third Republic, France has a long secular tradition imposing restrictive attitudes on the expression of religious and cultural identity in the public sphere. There are, however, growing concerns that this model, despite its claimed egalitarianism and universalism, fails to integrate the new immigrant minorities. The most illustrative example is the 2004 ruling against the display of conspicuous religious symbols in school, mainly targeted at Muslim schoolgirls who wished to wear the hijab. The main consequence of this refusal to acknowledge any minorities has been an inability to know whether the reality of equality matches the rhetoric of perfect cultural integration. While views on national identity and the integration model are very strongly held in France, the evidence base is rather weak. The goal of this chapter is to fill this gap.

Diverses enquêtes révèlent qu'en France, plus qu'ailleurs, on se méfie de ses concitoyens, des pouvoirs publics et du marché. En comparant les relations entre les performances économiques et les attitudes sociales dans une trentaine de pays, les auteurs montrent comment ce déficit de confiance réduit significativement l'emploi, la croissance, sinon l'aptitude des Français au bonheur.

in NBER International Seminar on Macroeconomics (Conference held June 17-18, 2005) Publication date 2007-05
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OECD countries faced largely divergent employment rates during the last decades. But the whole bulk of the cross-national and cross-temporal heterogeneity relies on specific demographic groups: prime-age women and younger and older individuals. This paper argues that family labor supply interactions and cross-country heterogeneity in family culture are key for explaining these stylized facts. First we provide a simple labor supply model in which heterogeneity in family preferences can account for cross-country variations in both the level and the dynamics of employment rates of demographic groups. Second, we provide evidence based on international individual surveys that family attitudes do differ across countries and are largely shaped by national features. We also document that cross-country differences in family culture cause cross-national differences in family attitudes. Studying the correlation between employment rates and family attitudes, we then show that the stronger preferences for family activities in European countries may explain both their lower female employment rate and the fall in the employment rates of young and older people.

This paper shows that employment protection is influenced by the male breadwinner conception which is itself shaped by religions. First, by using international individual surveys, we document that Catholics, Muslims and Orthodoxs are more likely to support such "macho values" than Protestants and atheists. Second, we develop a model showing that such a macho bias yields support to job protection legislation. This prediction is strongly supported by OECD panel data regressions including country-fixed effects.

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This paper shows that cross country differences in the generosity and the quality of the welfare state are associated with differences in the trustworthiness of their citizens. We show that generous, transparent and efficient welfare states in Scandinavian countries are based on the civicness of their citizens. In contrast, the generosity but low transparency of the Continental European welfare states survive thanks to the support of a large share of uncivic individuals who consider that it can be justifiable to misbehave with taxes and social benefits. We also explain why countries with an intermediate degree of trustworthiness of their citizens and of transparency of the government, like Anglo-Saxon countries, have small welfare states. Overall, this paper provides a rationale for the observed persistence of both efficient and inefficient welfare states, as a function of the civicness of the citizens.

in Oxford Review of Economic Policy Publication date 2006
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This paper shows that the stringency of employment protection in Mediterranean countries can be partly explained by cultural values embedded in religion. Both the security provided by this legislation and its redistributive effects in favour of the male breadwinner insiders fit into the framework of Mediterranean religions. First, international individual surveys allow us to document that Catholics and Muslims are more likely to agree with traditional gender division of work than Protestants and the non-religious. Second, we develop a political economy model predicting that employment protection should be more stringent in countries where there is a larger share of insiders supportive of traditional family values. We then show that this prediction is supported by empirical evidence on OECD countries over the period 1970–99.

OECD countries faced largely divergent employment rates during the last decades. But the whole bulk of the cross-national and cross-temporal heterogeneity relies on specific demographic groups: prime-age women and younger and older individuals. This paper argues that family labor supply interactions and cross-country heterogeneity in family culture are key for explaining these stylized facts. First we provide a simple labor supply model in which heterogeneity in family preferences can account for cross-country variations in both the level and the dynamics of employment rates of demographic groups. Second, we provide evidence based on international individual surveys that family attitudes do differ across countries and are largely shaped by national features. We also document that cross-country differences in family culture cause cross-national differences in family attitudes. Studying the correlation between employment rates and family attitudes, we then show that the stronger preferences for family activities in European countries may explain both their lower female employment rate and the fall in the employment rates of young and older people.

in Revue d’économie politique Publication date 2006-05
DECREUSE Bruno
FONTAINE François
TANGUY Solenne
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Le système d’indemnisation du chômage a un double objectif: fournir une assurance contre les risques idiosyncrasiques du marché du travail et participer au financement de la recherche d’emploi des chômeurs. La littérature économique s’est pendant longtemps essentiellement intéressée au premier objectif, en soulignant l’aspect désincitatif des allocations chômage. Toutefois, depuis quelques années, des contributions empiriques et théoriques ont mis en avant les bénéfices potentiels de l’indemnisation du chômage en soulignant qu’elle contribue aussi à financer la recherche d’emplois de bonne qualité et qu’elle permet de sélectionner des méthodes de recherche efficaces. Le présent article propose un aperçu synthétique de cette littérature.

Thesis Advisor ALGAN Yann, CAHUC Pierre Publication date 2018-04
MINEA Andreea
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Le 1er chapitre examine le rôle de la culture d’origine sur la manière dont les jeunes hommes et femmes diffèrent dans leurs choix de retarder le départ du foyer parental. Je montre que dans les cultures caractérisées par des valeurs traditionnelles portant sur les rôles de genre, les jeunes hommes ont plus d’incitations que les jeunes femmes à rester chez leurs parents. Lorsque les femmes de ces cultures vont vivre dans une société plus libérale par rapport aux rôles de genre, elles quittent plus vite le foyer parental et cherchent à trouver un mari d’une culture différente de la leur. Dans le 2e chapitre, nous montrons, à partir d’un testing sur CV, que les jeunes peu qualifiés sont moins rappelés par les employeurs du secteur privé lorsqu’ils sont Maghrébins plutôt que Français. L’origine des candidats n’a pourtant pas d’effet sur le taux de rappel dans le secteur public, même si les recruteurs des deux secteurs ont des préférences discriminatoires similaires. Notre modèle montre que l'absence de discrimination à l’invitation pour un entretien dans le secteur public est compatible, dans ce contexte, avec une discrimination plus forte à l'embauche. Le 3e chapitre s’appuie aussi sur un testing sur CV pour étudier les effets de l’expérience professionnelle des jeunes décrocheurs du secondaire quatre ans après avoir quitté les études. À défaut de formation certifiante, le taux de rappel n’est pas plus élevé pour ceux ayant eu une expérience professionnelle, subventionnée ou non, dans le secteur marchand ou non-marchand par rapport à ceux restés au chômage. De plus, une formation certifiante améliore les taux de rappel uniquement lorsque le taux de chômage local est faible.

in Annual Review of Economics Publication date 2013-08
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This article surveys recent research on the relationship between trust and growth. It documents the strong international and interregional heterogeneity of trust. The theoretical mechanisms that explain the influence of trust on economic performance and the empirical methods used to identify the causal impact of trust on economic performance are reviewed.

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