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  • Article (39)
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Cette thèse examine les déterminants des inégalités salariales, du point de vue de l’économie comportementale. Le premier chapitre analyse les choix d’orientation des étudiants dans le supérieur. En fondant notre analyse sur le contenu de lettres de motivation, nous décrivons l’évolution de leurs préférences scolaires et la manière dont ils prennent en compte des informations relatives à leurs capacités dans différentes matières. Le deuxième chapitre décrit les résultats d'une expérience étudiant les préférences en matière d’attribution des revenus. Nous montrons que, derrière le voile d’ignorance, les individus favorisent largement des inégalités plus importantes lorsqu’elles sont aussi plus efficaces. Mais lorsque ces inégalités apparaissent concrètement, un quart des sujets préfère réduire le montant attribué aux plus riches, même si cela n'améliore la situation de personne. Le troisième chapitre étudie la manière dont les préférences distributives des managers affectent la répartition des salaires, en se fondant sur des données d’enquête et une expérience. Nous montrons que les managers ont des préférences distributives normatives et sont prêts à payer pour les mettre en œuvre. Le quatrième chapitre analyse les résultats d'une expérience en ligne sur la discrimination ethnique aux États-Unis et en Allemagne. Nous comparons les caractéristiques du favoritisme ethnique au sein de chaque pays. Nous montrons que divulguer des informations sur la réussite économique des minorités ethniques permet de réduire le comportement discriminatoire de la majorité ethnique. Cependant, ces informations peuvent accroître la méfiance entre deux personnes issues de la même minorité.

Publié en 2020-03 Collection PsyArXiv Preprints
MELL Hugo
SAFRA Lou
DEMANGE Perrine
BAUMARD Nicolas
CHEVALLIER Coralie
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Social trust is at the center of democratic societies but it varies considerably between individuals and societies, which deeply affects a range of prosocial behaviours. Socioeconomic status has been identified as an important predictor of such variability. Although this association has mostly been reported for measures of socioeconomic status taken in adulthood, recent studies have found unique effects of harsh conditions experienced during childhood on social trust assessed decades later. Here, we report a series of three studies that provide further support for the long-lasting association between early childhood conditions and social trust. The first study revealed that higher childhood socioeconomic status was associated with greater social trust in a diverse sample of French participants (N=915), even after adjusting for current socioeconomic status. The second study replicated this result using data from the European Values Study, an independent large-scale survey of 46 European countries (N=66,281). Finally, the last study found a similar association between socioeconomic status and willingness to invest in a trust game (N=60 in original study, N=75 in replication study).

in Psychological Medicine Publié en 2020
VERGUNST Francis
TREMBLAY Richard E.
NAGIN Daniel
ZHENG Yao
GALERA Cédric
PARK Jungwee
BEASLEY Elizabeth
VITARO Frank
CÔTÉ Sylvana
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Background Childhood disruptive behaviors are highly prevalent and associated with adverse long-term social and economic outcomes. Trajectories of welfare receipt in early adulthood and the association of childhood behaviors with high welfare receipt trajectories have not been examined. Methods Boys (n = 1000) from low socioeconomic backgrounds were assessed by kindergarten teachers for inattention, hyperactivity, aggression, opposition, and prosociality, and prospectively followed up for 30 years. We used group-base trajectory modeling to estimate trajectories of welfare receipt from age 19–36 years using government tax return records, then examined the association between teacher-rated behaviors and trajectory group membership using mixed effects multinomial regression models. Results Three trajectories of welfare receipt were identified: low (70.8%), declining (19.9%), and chronic (9.3%). The mean annual personal employment earnings (US$) for the three groups at age 35/36 years was $36 500 (s.d. = $24 000), $15 600 (s.d. = $16 275), and $1700 (s.d. = $4800), respectively. Relative to the low welfare receipt group, a unit increase in inattention (mean = 2.64; s.d. = 2.32, range = 0–8) at age 6 was associated with an increased risk of being in the chronic group (relative risk ratio; RRR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.31) and in the declining group (RRR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.03–1.23), after adjustment for child IQ and family adversity, and independent of other behaviors. Family adversity was more strongly associated with trajectories of welfare receipt than any behavior. Conclusions Boys from disadvantaged backgrounds exhibiting high inattention in kindergarten are at elevated risk of chronic welfare receipt during adulthood. Screening and support for inattentive behaviors beginning in kindergarten could have long-term social and economic benefits for individuals and society.

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Le populisme est le produit de deux secousses telluriques. Premier séisme : la montée d’un immense ressentiment contre les partis et les institutions politiques. Face à l’échec de la droite et de la gauche à contenir les excès du capitalisme, la radicalité « anti-système » a brisé les compromis que l’un et l’autre camps étaient parvenus à édifier. Deuxième séisme : la fin de la société de classes, au profit d’une société d’individus pensant leur position sociale en termes subjectifs. Une nouvelle polarité en résulte, qui sépare les « confiants » des « méfiants » envers autrui. La droite populiste surgit au croisement d’une double méfiance – à l’égard des institutions politiques et à l’égard de la société. Elle prospère sur le désenchantement démocratique, tout en renouvelant le clivage gauche-droite. Fondé sur des données inédites, cet ouvrage se révèle essentiel pour comprendre le présent et l’avenir des sociétés démocratiques. Doyen de l’École d’affaires publiques, Yann Algan est professeur d’économie à Sciences Po. Économiste, Elizabeth Beasley est chercheuse à l'Observatoire du bien-être au CEPREMAP, et ancienne directrice de J-PAL France. Daniel Cohen est directeur du département d’économie de l’École normale supérieure et professeur à l’École d’économie de Paris. Directeur du CEVIPOF (CNRS), Martial Foucault est professeur des universités en science politique à Sciences Po.

Publié en 2019-06 Collection CEPR Discussion Papers : DP13771
DALVIT Nicolò
LE CHAPELAIN Alexis
ZENOU Yves
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We study how friendship shapes students' political opinions in a natural experiment. We use the indicator whether two students were exogenously assigned to a short-term "integration group", unrelated to scholar activities and dissolved before the school year, as instrumental variable for their friendship, to estimate the effect of friendship on pairwise political opinion outcomes in dyadic regressions. After six months, friendship causes a reduction of differences in opinions by one quarter of the mean difference. It likely works through a homophily-enforced mechanism, by which friendship causes politically-similar students to join political associations together, which reinforces their political similarity. The effect is strong among initially similar pairs, but absent in dissimilar pairs. Friendship affects opinion gaps by reducing divergence, therefore polarization and extremism, without forcing individuals' views to converge. Network characteristics also matter to the friendship effect.

Publié en 2019-06 Collection CEPR Discussion Papers : 13771
DALVIT Nicolò
LE CHAPELAIN Alexis
ZENOU Yves
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We study how social interaction and friendship shape students' political opinions in a natural experiment at Sciences Po, the cradle of top French politicians. We exploit arbitrary assignments of students into short-term integration groups before their scholar cursus, and use the pairwise indicator of same-group membership as instrumental variable for friendship. After six months, friendship causes a reduction of differences in opinions by one third of the standard deviation of opinion gap. The evidence is consistent with a homophily-enforced mechanism, by which friendship causes initially politically-similar students to join political associations together, which reinforces their political similarity, without exercising an effect on initially politically-dissimilar pairs. Friendship affects opinion gaps by reducing divergence, therefore polarization and extremism, without forcing individuals' views to converge. Network characteristics also matter to the friendship effect.

Publié en 2019-02 Collection Note de l'Observatoire du Bien-être : 2019-03
COHEN Daniel
BEASLEY Elizabeth
PÉRON Madeleine
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Ce travail propose pour la première fois d’étudier les clivages cachés du soutien aux Gilets jaunes à partir des données de l’enquêe du Baromètre de la confiance du CEVIPOF. Nous montrons que le soutien au mouvement entérine l’ effacement de l’axe droite-gauche traditionnel. Les Gilets jaunes réunissent des personnes dont les taux de satisfaction dans la vie sont très faibles, indépendamment de leur accord sur les moyens d’y répondre. Ce sont majoritairement d’anciens éecteurs de Marine Le Pen, de Jean-Luc Mélenchon ou des abstentionnistes (dans cet ordre). Ils partagent une critique plus radicale de l’Etat et du gouvernement que l’un et l’autre de ces électorats, tout en ayant des positions plus médianes sur des questions morales comme la tolérance a l’ égard des minorités. L’analyse de la géographie des ronds-points confirme le caractère original de ce mouvement. Le Nord-Est et le Sud-Ouest sont les points forts de la mobilisation, soit les deux régions ou Marine Le Pen et Jean-Luc Mélenchon ont fait leurs meilleurs scores en 2017

in JAMA Pediatrics Publié en 2019-02
VERGUNST Francis
TREMBLAY Richard E
NAGIN Daniel
BEASLEY Elizabeth
PARK Jungwee
GALERA Cédric
VITARO Frank
CÔTÉ Sylvana
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Importance Identifying early childhood behavioral problems associated with economic success/failure is essential for the development of targeted interventions that enhance economic prosperity through improved educational attainment and social integration. Objective To test the association between kindergarten teacher–rated assessments of inattention, hyperactivity, opposition, aggression, and prosociality in boys with their employment earnings at age 35 to 36 years as measured by government tax return data. Design, Setting, and Participants A 30-year prospective follow-up study analyzing low socioeconomic neighborhoods in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Boys aged 5 to 6 years attending kindergarten in low socioeconomic neighborhoods were recruited. Teacher-rated behavioral assessments were obtained for 1040 boys. Data were collected from April 1984 to December 2015. Analysis began January 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to examine the association between teacher ratings of inattention, hyperactivity, opposition, aggression, and prosociality at age 6 years and individual earnings obtained from government tax returns at age 35 to 36 years. The IQ of the child and family adversity were adjusted for in the analysis. Results Complete data were available for 920 study participants (mean age at follow-up was 36.3 years). Mean (SD) personal earnings at follow-up were $28 865.53 ($24 103.45) (range, $0-$142 267.84). A 1-unit increase in inattention (mean [SD], 2.66 [2.34]; range, 0-8) at age 6 years was associated with decrease in earnings at age 35 to 36 years of $1295.13 (95% CI, −$2051.65 to −$538.62), while a unit increase in prosociality (mean [SD], 8.0 [4.96]; range, 0-20) was associated with an increase in earnings of $406.15 (95% CI, $172.54-$639.77). Hyperactivity, opposition, and aggression were not significantly associated with earnings. Child IQ was associated with higher earnings and family adversity with lower earnings in all models. A 1-SD reduction in inattention at age 6 years was associated with a theoretical increase in annual earnings of $3040.41, a similar magnitude to an equivalent increase in IQ. Conclusions and Relevance Teacher ratings of inattention and prosociality in kindergarten boys from low socioeconomic neighborhoods are associated with earnings in adulthood after adjustment for hyperactivity, aggression, and opposition, which were not associated with earnings. Interventions beginning in kindergarten that target boys’ inattention and enhance prosociality could positively impact workforce integration and earnings.

in G7 Magazine: Global Briefing Report Publié en 2019
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The rise of antisystem forces and populism testifies to a deep trust crisis of citizens, both towards their institutions and others, as we show in a new book “The origins of populism” (with D. Cohen, E. Beasley, M. Foucault). The votes for antisystem parties is fueled first and foremost by a sharp deterioration of citizens’ trust in their institutions, experts and elites over the last three decades. According to the World Values Survey, the share of people who do not trust Parliament has increased from 47% to 77% in the United States, from 37% to 64% in France, and from 60% to 77% in Britain since the early 80s. [First paragraph]

in PLos ONE Publié en 2019-01
MURTIN Fabrice
BEASLEY Elizabeth
HIGAD Kazuhito
SENIK Claudia
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We build models to estimate well-being in the United States based on changes in the volume of internet searches for different words, obtained from the Google Trends website. The estimated well-being series are weighted combinations of word groups that are endogenously identified to fit the weekly subjective well-being measures collected by Gallup Analytics for the United States or the biannual measures for the 50 states. Our approach combines theoretical underpinnings and statistical analysis, and the model we construct successfully estimates the out-of-sample evolution of most subjective well-being measures at a one-year horizon. Our analysis suggests that internet search data can be a complement to traditional survey data to measure and analyze the well-being of a population at high frequency and local geographic levels. We highlight some factors that are important for well-being, as we find that internet searches associated with job search, civic participation, and healthy habits consistently predict well-being across several models, datasets and use cases during the period studied.

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