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This article reinterprets the circulations between the Mediterranean and continental Europe by studying the lazarets in eighteenth-century Trieste and explaining how they entangled and connected complex and autonomous systems for circulating information, knowledge, people and goods. It focuses on the various perspectives from which the history of lazarets and, more broadly, the history of circulations in an integrated Euro-Mediterranean area can be approached, and shows how the lazarets slowed down circulations, while also ensuring and encouraging them in a context of pandemic risks. In this way, it examines how eighteenth-century Habsburg history contributes to the history of the Mediterranean and inter-cultural exchanges from the perspective of German and Italian sources. In particular it highlights the value of the Litorale collections of the Hofkammer, which are held in the National Archives of Austria in Vienna, and the complementary nature of the Trieste and Vienna deposits. This article is part of the special theme section on Mobility and Displacement in and around the Mediterranean: A Historical Approach, guest-edited by Cátia Antunes and Giedrė Blažytė.

in Émotions en bataille XVIe-XVIIIe siècle Edited by BASTIEN Pascal, DERUELLE Benjamin, ROY Lise Publication date 2021-05
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Puissante, constructive et active, l’émotion est un lien social et un facteur de solidarité. Elle est à la source de nombreuses nouveautés associées à la première modernité et constitue le moteur d’importants basculements de l’ordre ancien. Alors que les expériences émotionnelles des acteurs et des observateurs peuvent différer radicalement, elles peuvent aussi être étroitement liées par l’interaction sociale, les représentations culturelles et visuelles et la médiatisation. C’est cet univers extraordinairement riche que nous proposons de traverser dans ce livre. Réunissant dix-huit contributions d’histoire, d’histoire de l’art et de littérature, ce volume propose des ouvertures théoriques et heuristiques inédites sur une époque bouillonnante, vive, dangereuse – et résolument moderne...

in The Historical Journal Publication date 2021-05
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This article identifies the different roles played by women in the diplomatic corps of the Pera embassies of Christian-ruled states. It focuses on women operating in and from the Habsburg embassy during the last two decades of the eighteenth century, a period marked by the revolutionary wars and the beginning of the ‘Eastern Question’. Using a microhistorical approach, this article analyses how women facilitated the embedding of individual members of the diplomatic corps in Pera's diplomatic social scene, the social integration of young diplomats, and the development of the trans-imperial networks of influence upon which diplomats heavily depended. It shifts the focus from states to actors and invites a more systematic development of a diplomatic history based on networks of non-official agents, thus enabling an improved understanding of the family, social, and urban dynamics that led to the development of political elites. This article draws on a set of private sources and parish sources in order to emphasize the role of households in the diplomacy of empires, the agenda of women in the management of patronage and power networks, and the diversity of their social affiliation.

in Cromohs - Cyber Review of Modern Historiography Publication date 2021-03
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This article analyses how food, recipes, and techniques and manners introduced as foreign were integrated in eighteenth-century German cookbooks. Doing so it intends to transfer a methodology recently developed in social history to history of food in order to get a better understanding of how eighteenth-century European societies defined foreignness. It claims that cookbooks should be considered as topographies of the table and presents the Holy Roman Empire as a particularly rich field of study for history of circulation in the early modern world.

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Adjunct Assistant Professor au Centre d’histoire, David Do Paço s’intéresse à la production du lien social dans des contextes de fortes diversités aux échelles locale, régionale et globale. Ses recherches se situent au croisement de l’histoire urbaine, de la microhistoire globale et de la nouvelle histoire des relations internationales. En puisant dans les enseignements de l’histoire du 18ème siècle il cherche à répondre à une question d’actualité : Quelle intégration des étrangers dans des sociétés urbaines de plus en plus grandes, denses et diverses ? [...]

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Fantasmée, détournée, parfois confisquée, l'histoire de Trieste et de son port franc interpelle. Au XVIIIe siècle, la fortune de la ville s'explique d'abord par sa position stratégique en Méditerranée. [1ères lignes]

in Contagion Edited by DO PACO David Publication date 2020-04
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‘Lazarets never aimed to stop circulations’The history of lazarets lies at the crossroads between the history of circulations and that of pandemics. Initially built to isolate and treat plague patients, they were then closely associated with the economic development of the early modern European states, and ensured the development of safe circulation in the Mediterranean and Central Europe. Here, through the example of the lazaret of Trieste, we can also understand that a lazaret was a micropolis, and the social and cultural importance of such micropolis for the city, the history, and the memory of Trieste. This history is also that of an empire, of its governance and of the many actors operating at the local, regional and global levels, despite an ever-present pandemic risk. [...]

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Contagion is a podcast series on circulation and pandemic threats throughout history jointly promoted by Cromohs and the Cost Action CA18140 ‘People in Motion: Entangled Histories of Displacement across the Mediterranean (1492’1923)’, or PIMo The Covid-19 pandemic crisis forced all of us to re-organize our scientific activity. It impacts our social and academic life. It also invited historians and social scientists to share their work, to publicize their multiple insights on the current crisis, and to look at it into the light of different historical experiences. Contagion askes how individuals, groups, societies and states reacted to pandemics. Doing so it explores the economic, social, political, and cultural dimensions of pandemics as well as their impact on the evolution of societies. It is equally a matter of better understanding how the pandemic risk has been assessed, managed, and anticipated in ordinary times by communities and public actors. Pandemics must be seen as an integral part of global history. Viruses are proteins; they do not circulate per se but are carried by living beings, both humans and animals. The spread of a virus can be considered a risk associated with all forms of circulation. It is up to each society to be aware of this and to assess this risk according to its own expectations. The history of a pandemic is therefore linked to the history of trade, navigation, colonization and travel, but also to the history of science and the constitution and dissemination of knowledge. In the 16th century, the introduction of smallpox in the Caribbean and then in the Americas by European sailors, soldiers and missionaries led to the extinction of 90% of the native populations; they had not developed antibodies to a disease they had never encountered. The crew of Christopher Columbus, on the other hand, brought syphilis back to the Mediterranean, and the wars in Italy then spread it throughout Europe. Epidemics and pandemics can indeed be the result of wars. The virus can still be a biological weapon. In 1346, the Mongols of the Golden Horde catapulted contaminated bodies over the walls of the Genoese colony of Caffà, whose merchants brought the ‘Black Death’ to Europe. A virus spread all the more easily as the organisms were weakened. 17th-century European Catholic societies associated the plague with famine and war in their prayers. The first Sino-Japanese war of 1894 increased the risk of the spread of the plague first contained in China, which very quickly affected the entire Asian Pacific coast as well as India. And the ‘Spanish flu’ of 1918 could be considered intrinsically linked to war because of the weakened societies and the circulation of soldiers, in and through which it was spread. The spread of ebola in the province of North Kivu in 2019 was another obvious evidence of the close and complex link between an infectious disease and a war that has been going on since 2004. Societies could respond to pandemics in radically different ways, generate a variety of emotions. In the 16th-century Aztec Empire as in the 17th-century the Holy Roman Empire, an eschatology developed with the effects of diseases that significantly amplified respectively the deaths of the Spanish conquest and the Thirty Years War. The diary of Sam Pepys is an exceptional source on the perception of the effects of the ‘Great Plague’ in 1665 London. Pepys, like the rest of the gentry, perceived the plague as an urban threat. As the first districts were quarantined, he described the departure of London’s elite to the countryside, spreading the disease even further. He himself sent his mother and wife to Woolwich but stayed in town to ensure the supply of London. He staged his indifference in front of the bodies piling up in the streets and a sort of acceptance of the banality of death. The summer heatwave seemed to him heavier than the plague. Medicine and society could also clash in the interpretation of the necessary measures to be taken during a time of crisis. While during the ‘Black death’ in Granada, Ibn Katima introduced a first typology of plagues, explained how they spread, and recommended social distancing, in Florence Giovanni Boccaccio denounced the selfishness of his contemporaries who turned away from the sick and left them to die alone, rather than accompanying them if not trying to cure them. Pandemics can indeed generate stigmatization and social marginalization of infected people and, like the AIDS epidemics of the 1980s and 1990s, this stigmatization can be more devastating than the disease itself. Despite their global dimension, pandemics were also part of the history of states and state-building. ‘Exclusion’ and ‘surveillance’ were according to Michel Foucault the two pillars of biopolitics. It is certainly no coincidence that Thomas Hobbes, the theorist of the social contract in England, was also the translator of Thucydides’ The Plague in Athens. The biological protection of the social body becomes an imperative for the State, whose legitimacy rested on the existence of this body. Bad policy led in Athens to the death of the state itself, embodied here by that of Pericles and the numerous religious desecrations. Then epidemics and pandemics were occasions for the development of the institutions through which the State informed itself and imposed social control over the governed populations. Closing borders, restricting freedom of movement and expression, distrust of foreigners and the temporary or permanent exclusion from society of certain groups identified as vulnerable, are measures specific to biopolitics. In this sense, infectious diseases also constitute a risk for today democracies. It is all of these themes that Contagion proposes to tackle with the participation of historians from different periods and disciplines working throughout the world.

in Christian-Muslim relations : a bibliographical history Edited by THOMAS David, CHESWORTH John Publication date 2020-03
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This chapter is an analytical state-of-the-art in the history of Muslim diplomacy in Central Europe. It proposes to conduct a multipolar European political history, to qualify the importance of Western European courts in the relationships between the Christian-ruled Europe and the Ottoman world, but also to highlight the role of both personal networks and unofficial agents. Focusing mainly on Ottoman, North African and Moroccan embassies in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Kingdom of Poland and the Kingdom of Prussia, he underlines the existence of ancient and structured trans-imperial social worlds, which create the conditions for political commensurability between Christian and Muslims rulers. Finally, this chapter significantly reduces the importance of the model of the Treaties of Westphalia in 1648 in the construction of a European political history.

Studying the Ottoman subjects in eighteenth-century Vienna helps to understand better the process of integration of the different districts of the city in a fast-changing context, especially around its Danube port area. Despite the withdrawal of the Ottoman empire from central Europe after 1683, Ottomans were fully a part of the history of Vienna and their presence has to be explored within the specific urban dynamics of a city: the reconfiguration of its economic sectors and social places, the tensions at play between the socio-economic groups by which a city was made and the evolution of its urban planning. Focusing on the Ottoman merchants operating in Vienna allows us to identify and to analyse the workings of the port area of the fourth largest city in Europe and to explore the social spaces of Viennese markets, streets, courtyards and coffeehouses.

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