Coauthor
  • MARTINEZ Luis (2)
  • BUCAILLE Laetitia (2)
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  • Article (3)
  • Part or chapter of a book (2)
  • Book (1)
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Using a prosopography based on sources which cannot be verified, most academic works on the phenomenon of suicide bombings tend to present a ‘martyr’ who is hyper-motivated to die. This contrasts with the life stories of former recruits from a Pakistani jihadi militia, which show that individual motivations might be less of a puzzle than the social mechanisms of self-sacrificial radicalization. Three types of mechanisms can then be identified: the fuite en avant, the ‘side-bet’ and the desire to belong to a domineering group. This emic approach is also applied to the causes of de-radicalization to suggest, from an ‘upside-down’ perspective, that the act of self-sacrificial violence itself does not always derive from the primary socialization of the militant, or necessarily from a will to die but, often, from collective techniques of creating consent and individual ‘absurd decisions’.

Sous la direction de BUCAILLE Laetitia, BLOM Amélie, MARTINEZ Luis Publication date 2007-07
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The debate surrounding Islamist violence remains locked in oppositional sterility. Are such attacks perpetrated by Islamists as a matter of belief or do they reflect socio-economic realities? Is the suicide bomber a pathological case, as the psychologist maintains, or a clever strategist, as those steeped in the geopolitical approach claim? This book aims to transcend both the culturalist or underdevelopment explanations by focusing on the highly variegated nature of the phenomenon. For example, suicide attacks are relatively common in Kashmir and Israel/Palestine but almost non-existent in Algeria and Yemen, both of which have experienced long-running campaigns by violent Islamist groups. However a more nuanced reading, based on a series of case studies, reveals a less obvious set of meanings for suicidal political violence. These bring us closer to the Islamists' political mindset: a quest for purity in the next world that replaces the justice here on earth of which the militant despairs; the distress caused by the degeneracy of a failing ethno-nationalist rebellion, which encourages a shift in the struggle to the timelessness of death; or the paradoxical desire to assert one's individuality when the wider group is powerless by carrying out an 'exemplary' act of war against an enemy that is increasingly imagined rather than real. These are among the complex motivations of suicide attacks that this book brings to light.

in Revue française de science politique Publication date 2011-10
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La plupart des travaux sur les attentats suicides construisent, à partir d’une prosopopée dépendante de sources problématiques, un « martyr » d’emblée motivé à mourir. Les récits de vie de recrues jihadistes pakistanaises montrent que les motivations individuelles pourraient en réalité être une énigme moins fondamentale que les temps et, surtout, les mécanismes sociaux de cette radicalisation. La fuite en avant, le pari adjacent et le désir d’encadrement sont trois mécanismes que cette perspective émique permet d’identifier. Elle conduit également à émettre l’hypothèse « en creux », en questionnant les causes du désengagement, que le passage à l’acte ne s’explique ni par la sociabilité primaire du militant, ni même forcément par une volonté de mourir : des techniques collectives de création du consentement et des décisions individuelles « absurdes » peuvent également le rendre intelligible.

Based on the first-person narratives of young born-again Muslims in mid-2000s’ Pakistan, this article points to several ways in which a renewed sociology of self-reform and faith-based activism could usefully draw more systematic attention to emotions. This empirical and inductive study first explores the role of emotions in the micro-foundations of re-Islamisation. It stresses the need to locate the emotive experiences that trigger this process, and sustain it through times and in opposition to others, in the body and the senses. It also discloses specific sensibilities, which, when linked to individual biographies, elucidate why potential followers are receptive, or not, to the various ‘sensitising devices’ deployed by Islamic organisations. In the second section, the expression of emotions is addressed in regard to its collective implications. Indeed, re-Islamisation often translates into rigid emotional boundaries separating the born-again from other communities, the ‘Muslims by birth’ and members of other sects. Reshaping togetherness is nevertheless not devoid of ambivalence: The young born-again Muslims I met in Pakistan were clearly torn between their contemptuous pleasure of occupying the moral high ground and the equally compelling aspiration to be tolerant and abide by the ‘feeling rules’ valued in Islamic ethics. They were also fully aware of the dangerous political implications of their feelings in a country disfigured by sectarian violence.

in The Enigma of Islamist Violence Sous la direction de BUCAILLE Laetitia, BLOM Amélie, MARTINEZ Luis, BUCAILLE Laetitia, BLOM Amélie, MARTINEZ Luis Publication date 2007
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in Pakistan and its Diaspora. Multidisciplinary Approaches Sous la direction de BOLOGNANI Marta, LYON Stephen M Publication date 2011
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Religious leaderships, and the type of collective mobilizations they foster in the name of Islam, have passed through major changes in Pakistan since the 1980s; especially in the growing urban areas where almost 35% of the population now live, compared to 25% in 1972. In addition to the well-known heads of "constitutionalist" Islamist parties, such as the Jamaat-i-Islami, the Jamiyyat Ulama-i-Islam, and the Jamiyyat Ulama-i-Pakistan, that the government has always quite successfully co-opted or exploited, new leaders have emerged and contributed to modify the landscape of Islamic activism in contemporary Pakistan, as proven by the "Red Mosque (Lal Masjid) Movement.