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in La storia in digitale. Teorie e metodologie Sous la direction de PACI Deborah Publication date 2019
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L'analyse de textes va-t-elle enfin entrer dans la boîte à outils de l'historien.ne ? La quantité grandissante de sources numérisées la rend plus rapide (le temps de numérisation était souvent un obstacle infranchissable auparavant). Elle rend toutefois encore plus nécessaire la réflexion critique sur ce qui est en ligne et ce qui n'y est pas (la plupart des textes documentant les dominé.e.s, notamment). Le choix de ce que l'on regarde de loin, plus encore que les décisions en matière de méthodes, oriente en effet les résultats.

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En plus d’une étude sous tous les angles et à toutes les échelles de la pratique de la convention collective de 1890 à 1914, en France et en Allemagne, le livre offre des synthèses du plus récent état de la recherche sur l’organisation du travail dispersé dans les fabriques collectives urbaines (aussi appelées aujourd’hui « districts industriels »), dans le bâtiment, dans ce qui reste de la proto-industrie rurale ; sur ce que fait le développement des syndicats ouvriers et patronaux à des pratiques de négociation collective qui leur préexistaient ; sur l’élaboration des statistiques des grèves ; sur le fonctionnement concret des tribunaux chargés du travail ; sur les débats juridiques, économiques et sociaux dans les universités et les ministères – liste non exhaustive.

in economic sociology_the european electronic newsletter Publication date 2018
COMET Catherine
DELARRE Sébastien
ELOIRE Fabien
FAVRE Guillaume
MOUNIER Lise
MONTES-LIHN Jaime
OUBENAL Mohamed
PENALVA-ICHER Elise
PIÑA-STRANGER Alvaro
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This short presentation is a “go to” summary providing interested readers with indications of our development of this neo-structural economic sociology. The notion of a social discipline that is perceived as legitimate by members of a social milieu is an important notion for understanding the contemporary form of cooperation between competitors. This form of cooperation relies on two dimensions of the very general notion of social discipline. A first dimension is located at the individual level and can be observed in the relational and symbolic work previously discussed. Actors are equipped with a social rationality (Lazega, 1992), thanks to which they design common projects and invest in relationships to manage their interdependencies via multiplex social exchange. The second dimension of the notion of social discipline exists at the collective level, although it is also endogenized by individual members. We refer to this second dimension as relational infrastructures. These infrastructures include horizontal and vertical differentiations in the social milieux of interdependent entrepreneurs. Horizontal differentiations correspond to systems of niches and vertical differentiations to heterogeneous forms of status. Relational infrastructures are crucial for the deployment and steering of key social processes usually associated with collective action among interdependent peers. We focus on such processes because they can help actors in managing the dilemmas of their collective actions: collective learning and socialization, bounded solidarity and exclusions, social control and conflict resolution, regulation and institutionalization. Our methodological contribution offers models of such processes using socio-economic network analyses mixed with other methods.

This chapter offers a neostructural perspective on how organized mobility and relational turnover (OMRT) constitute important dimensions of the social context in which social mechanisms are deployed. They determine many of the characteristics of those mechanisms. As an illustration, White [HC. Chains of opportunity: system models of mobility in organizations. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, (1970)] analysis of “mobility in loops” (p. 380) is combined with Snijders [TAB. “Models for longitudinal network data”. In: Carrington PJ, Scott J, Wasserman S (eds) Models and methods in social network analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 215−247, (2005)] models of network dynamics to look at how rotation across a carrousel of organizational places and subsequent relational turnover create a relational infrastructure that shapes a social process such as collective learning. Using a longitudinal study of advice networks among lay judges at the Commercial Court of Paris as an empirical example of collective learning, the author draws on a “spinning-top model” to account for the dynamics of these networks, in particular their cyclical centralization and decentralization over time, with OMRT in the Court providing the energy that drives this evolution and process. A “dynamic invariant” and its outcome, stability from movement, are thus identified at the heart of collective learning but are also shown to have an intrinsic multilevel character with consequences for catch-up dynamics between superimposed levels of agency. It is suggested that a neostructural perspective can thus inspire new collaborations between sociology and geography.

in Late Modernity Sous la direction de ARCHER Margaret S. Publication date 2014
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One way to understand the notion of Morphogenesis Unbound is to focus on the meso level of society, i.e. to look at society as an ‘organizational society’ and to think about the co-evolution of structure, agency and culture – the three dimensions of Archer’s sociology, analytically speaking – in that context. This co-evolutionary vision happens to be very close to the research program of neo-structural sociology. To illustrate this insight, one neo-structural method, multilevel network analysis through linked design, is applied to a set of empirical data so as to propose a network translation of Morphogenesis Unbound and observe its outcome. This chapter reports results in which actors create new relationships beyond the boundaries of the organization with which they are affiliated, thus reshaping/expanding their own personal opportunity structure beyond the limitations imposed upon them by pre-existing structures. Half the population of the innovators observed (here: highly competitive scientists) deploy ‘independentist’ strategies, i.e. all the new personal ties that they develop in their network among the elite of colleagues of their profession are beyond the constraining perimeter predefined by their organization’s inter-organizational network. The kind of organization that they might create would not establish inter-organizational ties with their current organization. Over time, measurements suggest that this independence takes them close to Nowhere in terms of further achievements. Slightly more pedestrian forms of Morphogenesis, i.e. perhaps less Unbound, based on a relational strategy called here ‘individualist’, in which actors keep a strong foot in the organization in which they are affiliated so as to use its resources to create a new set of ties – and eventually a new organization – outside their current organization’s perimeter, seem to be of a more rewarding kind of networks to Somewhere closer to the “prizes [that] go to those who will explore and can manipulate contingent cultural compatibilities to their advantage” (Archer 2012). In this latter case, even if some of the opportunities that they could create for themselves are hoarded by their current organization (or boss). Such neo-structural measurements of Morphogenesis are used to start thinking about situations in which the two generative mechanisms identified by Archer (2012), competition and opportunity, coexist; as differentiated from the situations in which the latter would replace the former. Indeed creating new ties with heterogeneous actors, beyond one’s current position and sometimes even new kinds of organizations, is a highly cultural form of agency. Breiger’s notion of ‘weak culture’ helps speculate about actors’ capacity to reshape opportunity structures by reaching heterogeneous alters in spite of resistance from a rather stable, change-averse, tightly-connected organizational society promoting ordinary incremental innovation that will not challenge pre-existing entrenched interests.

in Social Networks Publication date 2016-05
BAR-HEN Avner
BARBILLON Pierre
DONNET Sophie
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This paper looks at the effect of identifying alters as direct competitors on their selection as advisors. We differentiate between two kinds of competition: cut-throat vs friendly. We argue that, unlike cut-throat competition, friendly competition makes collective learning possible as a social process: when knowledge is built in interactions that are able to mitigate the negative effects of status competition and take place in homophilous social niches; and when the quality of this knowledge is guaranteed by members with epistemic status in these niches. Social niches and status facilitate advice seeking and collective learning because advice seeking between direct competitors is not obvious even when members have a common interest in sharing advice – a learning-related dilemma of collective action. We apply this reasoning to a network dataset combining identification of direct competitors and selection of advisors among the elite of cancer researchers in France. We use a procedure of multiplex stochastic block-modeling designed by Barbillon et al. (2015) to measure the effect of these identifications of direct competitors on the structure of the advice network. Results obtained with this dataset support our theory.

in Social Networks Publication date 2015
WANG Peng
ROBINS Garry
PATTISON Philippa
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Social selection models (SSMs) incorporate nodal attributes as explanatory covariates for modelling network ties (Robins et al., 2001). The underlying assumption is that the social processes represented by the graph configurations without attributes are not homogenous, and the network heterogeneity maybe captured by nodal level exogenous covariates. In this article, we propose SSMs for multilevel networks as extensions to exponential random graph models (ERGMs) for multilevel networks (Wang et al., 2013). We categorize the proposed model configurations by their similarities in interpretations arising from complex dependencies among ties within and across levels as well as the different types of nodal attributes. The features of the proposed models are illustrated using a network data set collected among French elite cancer researchers and their affiliated laboratories with attribute information about both researchers and laboratories (0070 and 0075). Comparisons between the models with and without nodal attributes highlight the importance of attribute effects across levels, where the attributes of nodes at one level affect the network structure at the other level.

in Social Networks Publication date 2013-01
WANG Peng
ROBINS Garry
PATTISON Philippa
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Modern multilevel analysis, whereby outcomes of individuals within groups take into account group membership, has been accompanied by impressive theoretical development (e.g. Kozlowski and Klein, 2000) and sophisticated methodology (e.g. Snijders and Bosker, 2012). But typically the approach assumes that links between groups are non-existent, and interdependence among the individuals derives solely from common group membership. It is not plausible that such groups have no internal structure nor they have no links between each other. Networks provide a more complex representation of interdependence. Drawing on a small but crucial body of existing work, we present a general formulation of a multilevel network structure. We extend exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to multilevel networks, and investigate the properties of the proposed models using simulations which show that even very simple meso effects can create structure at one or both levels. We use an empirical example of a collaboration network about French cancer research elites and their affiliations (0125 and 0120) to demonstrate that a full understanding of the network structure requires the cross-level parameters. We see these as the first steps in a full elaboration for general multilevel network analysis using ERGMs.

in Towards a Participatory Society Publication date 2018-02
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In society at large, top-down participation provided by institutional authorities, mainly in the form of dialogue and consultation, is often taken up (or even driven) by associations (for example, as part of “governance” among “stakeholders”). However, at the same time, it is often approached by the very same associations with defiance and mistrust. In contexts where asymmetries of power and inequalities are huge, the avoidance of sharing truly decisional power with weaker and nevertheless legitimate parties has been widely documented (see Fisher, 2012). For example, decisional power is rarely shared with parties such as vulnerable citizens or migrants with human rights, from different origins in need of welcome, orientation, and integration. Civil society organizations in particular, which try to locally push a broad agenda or a set of general causes, are suspicious of officials offering participation because they think they are trying to avoid the emergence of counter-powers, counting on citizen apathy, and trying to invite “anyone” to the table, short-circuiting representatives of civil society associations, by inviting only highly selected people based on clientelistic criteria and hiding purposes of social control behind co-optation (Selznick, 1949). [First paragraph]

in Applied Network Science Publication date 2019-06
SOLDANO Henry
SANTINI Guillaume, Lipn )
BOUTHINON Dominique, Lipn )
BARY Sophie
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Applying closed pattern mining to attributed two-mode networks requires two conditions. First, as in two-mode networks there are two kinds of vertices, each described with a proper attribute set, we have to consider patterns made of two components that we call bi-patterns. The occurrences of a bi-pattern forms an extension made of a pair of vertex subsets. Second, Formal Concept Analysis and Closed Pattern Mining were recently applied to networks by reducing the extensions of pattern to their cores, according to some core definition. We need to consider appropriate core definitions for two-mode networks and define accordingly closed bi-patterns. We describe in this article a general framework to define closed bi-pattern mining. We also show that this methodology applies as well to cores of directed and undirected networks in which each vertex subset is associated with a specific role. We illustrate the methodology first on a two-mode network of epistemological data, then on a directed advice network of lawyers and finally on an undirected bibliographical network.

in Multilevel Network Analysis: Theory, Methods and Applications Sous la direction de LAZEGA Emmanuel, LAZEGA Emmanuel, SNIJDERS Tom Publication date 2016
SNIJDERS Tom
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Theoretical developments and the emergence of new epistemological insights are based on interactions between old problems and new methodologies (Courgeau, 2003). At least two methodologies have helped social scientists of the past two generations in overcoming the traditional divide between individualistic and holistic approaches in the social sciences: multilevel analysis and social network analysis. The purpose of this book is to provide an exploration of the diverse ways in which these two methodologies can be brought together in statistical approaches to multilevel network analysis, specifically their combination in the development of three areas: theory, techniques, and empirical applications in the social sciences. The combination of approaches opens up new avenues of research and improves the necessary management of so-called ‘ecological fallacies’ in complex systems of inequalities: for example, when looking at problems as different as school performance of pupils or career development in labor markets. With respect to theory, this book describes the development of multilevel network reasoning by showing how it can explain behavior by insisting on two different ways of contextualizing it. The first method consists of identifying levels of influence on behavior and identifying in sophisticated ways different aggregations of actors and behaviors as well as complex interactions between levels and therefore between context and behavior. A second, more recent method of contextualization, consists of identifying different systems of collective agency as distinct levels of analysis, differentiating for example among levels of collective action with different goals; specific resource interdependencies between members; and specific social processes that help members manage dilemmas of collective action at each level. The book also provides an overview of different methodologies contributing to this perspective and case studies and datasets that explore new avenues of theorizing and modeling. Each chapter contributes to the exploration of structure in multilevel network analysis, from descriptive and inductive techniques to stochastic models (from network autocorrelation models to p2 models to ERGMs), accounting for both horizontal and vertical interdependencies. Although heterogeneous with respect to units of analysis and methods, models of multilevel network analysis presented in this volume tend to take into account a variety of structural dependencies, both within and between levels. The conclusion extends theoretical, methodological and empirical results of this new epistemology by speculating on the insights provided on our knowledge of societies that have become “organizational” societies, i.e. rationalized, managerialized, and marketized.

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This paper is the text prepared for the keynote address of the EUSN 2017 conference in Mainz, Germany. A short presentation of concepts reflects in part the foundations of neostructural sociology (NSS) and its use of social and organisational network analyses, combined with other methodologies, to better understand the roles of structure and culture in individual and collective agency. The presentation shows how NSS accounts for institutional change by focusing on the importance of combined relational infrastructures and rhetorics. Specific characteristics of institutional entrepreneurs who punch above their weight in institutionalization processes are introduced for that purpose, particularly the importance of multistatus oligarchs, status heterogeneity, high-status inconsistencies, collegial oligarchies, conflicts of interests and rhetorics of relative/false sacrifice. Two empirical examples illustrate this approach. The first case focuses on a network study of the Commercial Court of Paris, a 450-year-old judicial institution. The second case focuses on a network study of a fieldconfiguring event (the so-called Venice Forum) lobbying for the emergence of a new European jurisdiction, the Unified Patent Court, and its attempt to create a common intellectual property regime for the continent. For sociologists, both examples involve “studying up”: they are cases of public/private joint regulation of markets bringing together these ingredients of institutionalization. The conclusion suggests future lines of research that NSS opens for the study of institutionalization, in particular using the dynamics of multi-level networks. One of the main issues raised by this approach is its contribution to the study of democratic deficits in a period of intense institutional change in Europe.

L’analyse des réseaux sociaux est une méthode sociologique de modélisation de systèmes d’interdépendances au sein d’un milieu social. Elle est utilisée notamment comme méthode de cartographie des flux d’échanges sociaux et économiques. À ce titre, quel que soit le phénomène social étudié par le sociologue, cette approche structurale est possible si ce phénomène a une dimension relationnelle observable de manière systématique. Elle permet d’étudier les processus fondamentaux de la vie sociale, dont les formes de solidarité, de contrôle social, de régulation et d’apprentissage sont souvent peu visibles en situation. Cet ouvrage est une introduction à cette méthode structurale essentielle en sociologie.

in Dictionnaire non standard des conventions Sous la direction de BESSIS Franck Publication date 2016
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L’institutionnalisme en sociologie souligne, dans une perspective souvent wébérienne, l’importance des valeurs, normes et règles comme frein au comportement économique prédateur et à l’exercice brutal du pouvoir. De ce point de vue, les valeurs sont constamment débattues, contestées, redéfinies et rehiérarchisées. Les collectifs organisés évoluent en partie parce qu’ils peuvent redéfinir leurs règles de manières disjointes ou conjointes (Reynaud, 1989). Le plus fort n’impose pas mécaniquement ses valeurs, ses normes et ses règles. Les interactions entre conventions et structures deviennent donc très vite très complexes. Du point de vue d’une sociologie néo-structurale, dire qu’entre les conventions et les comportements on trouve des infrastructures relationnelles, c’est dire que la coordination par les règles requiert la mise au jour d’infrastructures relationnelles connues des acteurs et articulées à leurs identifications et choix normatifs. La gestion, par les acteurs, de leurs interdépendances fait déjà partie de la lecture organisationnelle de l’action économique. Mais les interdépendances fonctionnelles ne suffisent pas à constituer les régularités sociales que représentent ces infrastructures relationnelles. Ces dernières (modélisables comme des « niches sociales » et des formes hétérogènes de « statut social ») aident les acteurs à suspendre le comportement opportuniste. Elles relèvent de logiques de l’échange social et du choix des partenaires de cet échange, dans des processus aussi centraux que la régulation et l’institutionnalisation, mais aussi, en amont, de l’apprentissage et la socialisation, de la solidarité et des exclusions, du contrôle social et de la résolution des conflits.

in Morphogenesis and the Crisis of Normativity Sous la direction de ARCHER Margaret S. Publication date 2016
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From a neo-structural perspective, the link between anormative regulation and morphogenesis (Archer, 2016) has far-reaching implications. This chapter argues that this link sheds a strong critical light on joint regulatory processes co-driven by the two most powerful actors in contemporary organizational societies: states and businesses. It does so by looking at how specific institutional entrepreneurs, who are part of collegial oligarchies mixing public and private elites, use procedural law as ‘weak culture’ (Breiger, 2010) to produce, rank and promote specialized norms. Our setting is the emergence of the European Unified Patent Court, and the institutional entrepreneurs are intellectual property judges assembled by corporate lawyers to frame the new institution. This multilevel regulatory process is represented by the heuristic image of a multilevel spinning top and is shown to be close to institutional capture.

in Faire la concurrence Sous la direction de CASTEL Patrick, HENAUT Leonie, MARCHAL Emmanuelle Publication date 2016-05
BRAILLY Julien
FAVRE Guillaume
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Ce chapitre s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une théorie néo-structurale de la coopération entre concurrents pour étudier la manière dont l’organisation d’une place de marché, dans notre cas un salon, façonne la concurrence, autrement dit comment l’organisation de la rencontre entre vendeurs et acheteurs pèse sur les relations entre vendeurs. Nous montrons que malgré les efforts de l’organisateur du salon pour discipliner le comportement des participants, ces derniers s'organisent en grappes pour s’extraire du cadre du salon de manière à se différencier les uns des autres, et à remodeler et redéfinir à leur avantage les rapports de concurrence. La première partie présente brièvement le marché étudié, celui des programmes de télévision à l’échelle mondiale, pour montrer l’apport méthodologique de l’entrée par les salons que nous proposons. La deuxième partie analyse le travail de l’organisateur du Promoshow East, et la manière dont il tente de mettre en forme la concurrence et de cadrer les comportements des participants au salon. La troisième partie identifie les acteurs et leurs regroupements, puis détaille les stratégies d’évitement et comportements opportunistes des représentants de commerce/vendeurs les plus puissants du marché.

En France, la médiation sociale a été au cours de la dernière décennie un terrain particulièrement étudié par la sociologie des groupes professionnels, montrant bien souvent l’échec de sa « professionnalisation ». Si ce terme analytique n’est pas le plus adéquat pour rendre compte de la réalité sociale observée sur le terrain, le sociologue ne peut passer sous silence la présence de dynamiques de consolidation des pratiques, de recherche d’une forme de stabilisation des travailleurs de la médiation sociale. Cet article propose de montrer concrètement comment le processus de division du travail entre médiateurs sociaux et acteurs du paysage local se fait incertain et ce, à partir d’une lecture interactionniste de leurs liens de coordination. En étudiant précisément l’ambiguïté de leur coopération, nous montrerons les difficultés pour les médiateurs à se projeter dans une activité professionnelle perçue et vécue comme stigmatisée. Cette analyse montrera donc l’une des tendances du monde du travail contemporain : le développement d’une forme de structuration d’activités de travail suivant un schéma alternatif au modèle conventionnel de la professionnalisation classique.

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Cette contribution propose une analyse sociologique du phénomène de recherche translationnelle à partir des dispositifs d’action publique mis en œuvre dans le secteur de la cancérologie française. Loin de renvoyer à une forme unique et stabilisée d’organisations, cette contribution démontre que l’avènement de la recherche translationnelle s’inscrit dans une action continue et ancienne des pouvoirs publics pour favoriser les échanges entre soins et recherche afin d’accroître le développement économique

in Critique internationale Publication date 2017-01
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Cet article propose un éclairage nouveau sur le fonctionnement de la confédération patronale européenne, l’Union des industries de la communauté européenne (UNICE), devenue Business-Europe en 2007. Si le constat de l’hétérogénéité des intérêts qui y sont représentés n’est plus à faire, reste à comprendre l’évolution des acteurs perçus comme légitimes pour la mettre en action. Alors que les représentants des organisations nationales membres ont longtemps occupé une place centrale, ils sont progressivement contestés par l’affirmation des salariés « européens » de la confédération. À partir d’archives et d’entretiens, ce texte décrit la production de différentes formes de légitimités à dire l’européen ainsi que l’évolution de leurs modalités de coexistence. La fabrique composite de cette légitimité à mettre en action l’UNICE éclaire à la fois la diversité des conceptions dont fait l’objet un euro-groupe et la pluralité des ressources mobilisées par les acteurs pour y exister.

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This article explores the organization of cultural markets through the case of French contemporary poetry, distinguishing the market for recognition and the wider market for renown. The market of poetry is made of large-scale and reputed publishers and a wide range of smaller firms, which serve as testing grounds for new authors and innovation. How can the movement of an a priori narrow-appeal literary genre from small publishing houses to large-scale firms be explained? It is argued that if the status of firms is remarkably stable, artists may move from small publishers to large-scale ones. Statistical evidence is used to illustrate this passage, shedding a new light on the structure of cultural markets and the role of reputation in organizing commercial circuits. Future directions for research are offered.

in Dictionnaire du travail Sous la direction de BEVORT Antoine, JOBERT Annette, LALLEMENT Michel, MIAS Arnaud Publication date 2012-01
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Dans la plupart des cas, la grande entreprise occidentale qui s’implante en Chine vise l’essor de ses marchés. Sa stratégie est une stratégie de développement international : il s’agit de prendre place sur le marché chinois – non de « délocaliser » et de profiter des différentiels de coûts entre l’Asie et l’Europe. Ce mobile se conçoit d’autant mieux que les coûts d’entrée dans l’économie chinoise sont lourds. Les barrières font objection aux installations opportunistes : par la force des choses, elles s’accordent mieux à des stratégies de long terme. Un premier inventaire de ces coûts d’entrée conduit à distinguer deux éléments différents (...).

in La rationalisation dans les entreprises par les technologies coopératives Sous la direction de BAZET Isabelle, RAPP Lucien, DE TERSSAC Gilbert Publication date 2007
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in Dictionnaire de la pensée sociologique Sous la direction de BOUDON Raymond, CHERKAOUI Mohamed Publication date 2005
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Dans quelles conditions les entreprises ont-elle frayé leur chemin dans les programmes du Groupe puis du Centre de Sociologie des Organisations, après des débuts qui leur valurent d'être incorporées au modèle de la bureaucratie publique ? Quels glissements se sont opérés au fil des quatre périodes ici distinguées ? Quelles relations se sont établies dans ce domaine avec d'autres laboratoires français et étrangers ? Une étude des 20 rapports d'activité remis au CNRS permet de comprendre les contributions successives de ses équipes à l’appréhension des transformations des entreprises et leur volonté persistante de ne pas tracer de frontière étanche entre l’action publique et l'activité économique.

in Water conflicts and hydrocracy in the Americas Publication date 2018-09
POUPEAU Franck
COEURDRAY Murielle
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In a context of uncertainty linked to the ecological transition, the issue of managing the scarcity of natural resources has become an essential factor in the study of environmental policy (Markard, Raven, ruffer, 2012; Lubell, 2013; Hornberger, Hess, Gilligan, 2015). Faced with the collective ideals of the “governance of the commons,” (Ostrom, 1990; Ingold, 2008) crisis situations are particularly revealing of ongoing changes (Bakker, 2010; Barraqué, 2011; Lascoumes, 2012). From this point of view, the drought that has affected the American Southwest for the last fifteen years illustrates the difficulties encountered in terms of regulating the environmental impact of human activities (Lynn-Ingram, Malamud-Roam, 2013). Tis chapter aims to examine the implementation of ecological measures in water policies which, traditionally, have been subordinated to the imperatives of the region’s economic development (Worster, 1985; Reisner, 1986; Pincetl, 2011).

in Riesgos, Gobernanza y conflictos socioambientales Publication date 2018-03
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