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in The Conversation Publication date 2020-05-24
CASEAU Anne-Cécile
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1ère lignes : Après quasiment 8 semaines de détresse, la situation dans les bidonvilles et squats de France est explosive. Suite à l’allocution d’Édouard Philippe le 7 mai, il reste beaucoup de questions au sujet du déconfinement en situation d’urgence sanitaire, et de la manière dont des actions mises en place dans l’urgence pendant ces dernières semaines seront maintenues ou non. Très récemment, la Cour européenne des droits de l’Homme (CEDH) a condamné la France pour l’évacuation d’un bidonville rom en région parisienne en 2013. Cet acte fait écho à l’alerte lancée par Birgit Van Hout, la représentante régionale pour l’Europe du Haut-Commissariat des Nations unies aux droits de l’homme (HCDH), au sujet des Roms. La pandémie a en effet aggravé la situation d’inégalité déjà critique à laquelle ces communautés sont confrontées.

in Revue Projet Edited by GUILLOU Benoît, LIÈVRE Marion, LEGROS Olivier, VERGER Daniel, VITALE Tommaso Publication date 2020-05
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Le dossier entend croiser, comme le fait habituellement la Revue Projet, des regards de chercheurs et d’acteurs de terrain, en faisant se confronter savoirs scientifiques et savoirs d’expérience. D’où une approche déclinée en trois parties. 1. Tout d’abord, un recueil d’initiatives de personnes en situation précaire pour gagner leur pain au quotidien, des activités souvent jugées informelles et pourtant loin d’être marginales. 2. Ensuite, plusieurs témoignages illustreront les réalités du travail social : ceux d’assistantes sociales, d’un directeur de centre communal d’action sociale (CCAS) et de l’ancien maire de Perpignan. 3. Enfin, la focale sera mise sur des dispositifs innovants, comme « Territoires zéro chômeur de longue durée » à Villeurbanne, les difficultés de la mixité résidentielle, l’expérience du « croisement des savoirs » avec ATD à Lille. Quatre propositions concrètes pour lutter contre la pauvreté ouvriront une conclusion toujours à poursuivre. Au préalable, nous avons jugé important de revenir rapidement sur l’évolution des politiques de la pauvreté en France. Ce dossier se propose ainsi comme une base de réflexion pour alimenter les débats. Le virus, certes, n’épargne personne mais nous ne sommes pas tous égaux face à la pandémie. La lutte contre la pauvreté se présente comme un sujet majeur, à l’avenir.

First lines: On March 9, 2020 the Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, "in order to counteract and contain the spread of the Covid-19 virus," signed a decree of complete lockdown aimed at "avoiding any movement of individuals."1 Furthermore, the government recommended the application of stringent hygienic-sanitary measures throughout the country. Our NGO, “Associazione 21 luglio”, began an applied research project aimed at understanding the impact of the measures in formal settlements in Rome. These settlements are inhabited by families that generally define themselves (and are identified by the local authorities) as belonging to varied Roma communities.

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Il 9 marzo 2020 il presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri italiano Giuseppe Conte, «allo scopo di contrastare e contenere il diffondersi del virus Covid-19», ha firmato un decreto di completo lockdown finalizzato a “evitare ogni spostamento delle persone fisiche”. Su tutto il territorio nazionale, inoltre, è raccomandata l’applicazione di stringenti misure igienico-sanitarie. Con la nostra Associazione 21 luglio abbiamo subito effettuato una ricerca applicata finalizzata a comprendere il primo impatto delle misure emergenziali in alcuni insediamenti formali della città di Roma abitati da famiglie identificate dalle autorità locali e che generalmente si autodefiniscono come appartenenti alle diverse comunità rom.

in Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies Publication date 2020-03
COUSIN Grégoire
BIANCHI Federico
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Contemporary West European shantytowns have essentially been studied with qualitative methods. Questions related to their ethnic structure, homophily and interaction with local institutions have not been analysed through large samples and survey data. Based on the example of Romanian and Bulgarian Roma living in shantytowns in the Parisian metropolitan area, we analyse the ‘historical’ region of origin (autochthony), networks between individuals and households having lived together in a shantytown, as well as some of their attitudes, skills, and behaviour (i.e. expectations as to local welfare, French proficiency, children’s schooling). We used a database of slum-dwellers in Paris collected by social workers (N = 12,019). The paper looks at how autochthonies combine with socialisation in shantytowns and with territorial institutional effects of local policies. Evidence shows that while there are limited differences in the socio-professional backgrounds of slum-dwellers, there are several differences in attitudes, behaviour and skills. Moreover, social network analysis shows that these differences are only weakly related to the households’ region of origin (autochthony), while they are more correlated to emergent structural clusters of co-habitation connections, where individuals socialise in acting together to build and manage a shantytown. Moreover, local policies at the city level play a role in shaping shantytown dwellers expectations and skills for integration.

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In the aftermath of the 2018 general election results, several scholars have remarked on the inability of the Five Star Movement to increase its vote in Milan. While the role of demographic and socio-economic factors has been highlighted, little attention has been dedicated to understanding the complex role of spatial dynamics. This paper aims to contribute to the existing literature by inquiring about the relationship between support for the Five Star Movement and the characteristics of urban space in Milan. Following the longstanding debate in urban sociology, we recognise the importance of investigating this question beyond the borders of the central municipality. We overcome the problematic nature of standard approaches by analysing the entire Functional Urban Area of Milan as defined by the Oecd, using a new set of areas. Adopting an ecological approach, we define our spatial units in such a way that they have a sociological meaning and embrace the characteristics of the local population which actually voted at a specific polling station. We regress support for the Five Star Movement in each electoral district on a range of demographic, socio-economic and spatial variables. The results show that more disadvantaged districts beyond Milan’s municipal borders have a strong propensity towards supporting the Five Star Movement. Many of these areas were negatively affected by the economic crisis of 2008 and continue to experience severe difficulties. They are not places of extreme marginality, but may be described as «disenfranchised» areas with many unsatisfied needs that are largely ignored by the traditional parties.

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La crise sanitaire mondiale que nous traversons questionne fortement notre engagement solidaire, de surcroit en condition de confinement. Comment assurer une présence active auprès des personnes les plus vulnérables ? Quelles relations tisser ? Comment nourrir une appartenance commune ? Pour en discuter, nous avons interrogé le sociologue Tommaso Vitale, professeur à Sciences Po Paris. Italien travaillant en France, il nous partage son regard sur ce qui émerge de part et d’autre des Alpes.

in Scientometrics Publication date 2020-01
LOANNONI Vanessa
COSTA Corroda
ELLIOT Iris
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Contemporary research on Roma from diverse disciplines has grown strongly during the last years. This is the first bibliometric study on the field of Romani studies considering the period 1997–2018 with the aims of mapping scholar’s disciplines and analyzing localization and their thematic contributions. The world evolution of Roma research topics and their citation impacts has been analyzed using a Network Analysis approach. The Scopus database was used to retrieve bibliographic records on Gypsy and Roma research. The bibliometric analysis of scholarly endeavour identifies three principal clusters: ‘History and Culture’, ‘Education’, and ‘Discrimination and Policy’. Results shows that scholars became more attentive to Roma issues as it became an important topic in public debate. Informed by this analysis, questions are raised about how to strengthen connectivity, collaborative research and knowledge exchange beyond national and disciplinary borders. In the term citation map among the most followed themes by number of normalized average quotations, the topics of ‘Discrimination and Policy’ analysis undeniably emerges. In the current historical moment characterised by rising ethno-nationalism and racism we intend that this paper informs further research that will deepen our understanding of the contributions of different social science disciplines with regards to epistemology, methodology and impact.

in Popolo chi? Classi popolari, periferie e politica in Italia Edited by BERTUZZI Niccolò, CACIAGLI Carlotta, CARUSO Loris Publication date 2019-06
EMILIO CHESTA Riccardo
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In questo capitolo riflettiamo sull’inchiesta collettiva presentata in questo libro e formuliamo l’ipotesi che le classi popolari tornino a essere un degli agenti del cambiamento sociale e politico. E' un’ipotesi che elaboriamo all’interno di una prudenza storico- comparativa, tipica delle analisi politiche contestuali (Goodin e Tilly, 2008), che dà pieno valore al modo in cui cambiamenti strutturali sono recuperati e mobilitati strategicamente in diversi sistemi di partito. Questo è il quadro da cui è partito il Cantiere, in una ricerca che più che voler essere definitiva, pone le basi per futuri lavori in grado di riaprire una discussione tanto scientificamente seria quanto il più possibile pubblica sulla questione popolare. La nostra inchiesta collettiva è uno strumento per la riflessione collettiva sul variegato universo delle classi popolari che abitano numerose città italiane. Essa presenta dei dati empirici di grande interesse, che meritano di essere letti da un pubblico tanto ampio quanto variegato: dalle interviste emerge uno spazio sociale, oltre che politico, ben diverso dalle rappresentazioni frettolose tanto dei media tradizionali quanto delle caricature dei social media. Il nazionalismo autarchico non è un destino fatale immutabile a cui ci spingono le classi popolari. Al contrario: l’inchiesta collettiva mostra una continua attenzione e un marcato interesse per la protezione sociale, per una richiesta di diritti e beni collettivi.

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