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  • BELLONE Flora (16)
  • MUSSO Patrick (14)
  • GUILLOU Sarah (13)
  • GAFFARD Jean-Luc (10)
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  • Article (34)
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  • Partie ou chapitre de livre (8)
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L’étude empirique des zones d’emploi sur données d’entreprises montre que les performances de ces zones ne sont exclusivement attribuables ni à leur structure sectorielle ni à la phase du cycle économique. Il existe des effets propres à chaque territoire qui expliqueraient valeur ajoutée, investissement et emploi. Ces effets s’inscrivent dans un contexte de changement structurel qui se dessine au détriment des industries manufacturières et au bénéfice des activités dites de services de haute technologie.

in Revue de l'OFCE - Debates and Policies Publié en 2014-05
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Real divergences in economic performances that emerge between countries belonging to the Eurozone make it necessary to define an economic policy oriented towards a re-industrialization of some regions in Europe. In a world characterized by irreversibility of investment and imperfection of market information, supply-side reforms should consist in establishing a framework aimed at supporting both competition and cooperation between the various players of innovation, and thus allowing firm strategies to be successful. This requires reconsidering both national and European policies that are growth-enhancing, that is, industrial policy, competition policy, labour policy, regional policy, and banking policy. However, any change in the industrial landscape in Europe will only be possible if a new macroeconomic policy prevents the inappropriate destruction of productive capacities.

in Revue de l'OFCE - Débats et politiques Publié en 2014-05
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Les divergences réelles de performances économiques entre les pays de la zone euro rendent nécessaire de définir une politique économique orientée vers la ré-industrialisation de certaines régions en Europe. Dans un monde caractérisé par l’irréversibilité des investissements et l’imperfection des informations de marché, les réformes structurelles devraient consister à établir un ensemble de mesures destinées à soutenir à la fois la concurrence et la coopération entre les différents acteurs de l’innovation, et de permettre la réussite des stratégies des entreprises. Cela requiert de reconsidérer les politiques nationales et européennes de soutien à la croissance, c’est-à-dire, la politique industrielle, la politique de la concurrence, la politique du marché du travail, la politique régionale, la politique financière. Cependant, un changement du paysage industriel de l’Europe ne sera possible qu’à la condition qu’une nouvelle politique macroéconomique prévienne la destruction inappropriée de capacités productives.

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This paper analyses post-entry and pre-exit performance of French firms using a dataset covering 14 manufacturing industries over the period 1990-2002. The main focus is on market selection mechanisms looking at total factor productivity levels of entrants and exitors relative to incumbent firms. Entrants are found to outperform incumbents, while exitors are less efficient than their surviving counterparts. We nonetheless found key distinguishable features of exit patterns between young and mature firms. Young exiting firms do not display productivity disadvantage relative to incumbent firms. By contrast, mature exiting firms display large and persistent productivity disadvantage relative to their surviving counterparts (shadow of death effect). The determinants of exit differ for entrants and incumbents. Productive inefficiency is a key determinant of the exit of mature firms but not entrants.

in Revue de l'OFCE Publié en 2006-06
BELLONE Flora
MUSSO Patrick
QUÉRÉ Michel
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In this paper, we analyse post-entry and pre-exit performance of French manufacturing firms using a dataset covering 14 industries over the period 1990-2002. Our purpose is to shed light on the working of market selection mechanisms within French manufacturing industries. We found that market selection in France rightly operates in favour of more productive firms, but displays some potential inefficiency in selecting more severely new firms compared to mature firms. This claim is based on three results. First, on average, young firms fail to survive when they are faced with a small productivity disadvantage with respect to incumbents. By contrast, mature firms exit the market only when they are confronted by a large, persistent, and increasing productivity gap with their surviving counterparts. Second, we show that successful entrants do not easily catch up to the average size of the industry despite the fact that they exhibit significant TFP and profitability advantages over incumbents. This reveals the existence of barriers to growth for young firms. Thirdly, we show that, on the whole, productivity improvements due to market selection mechanisms within French manufacturing industries are primarily due to market share reallocation across incumbents and that the net entry effect is weak relative to the findings for other industrialised countries.

We investigate the conditions under which R&D investment by rival firms may be negatively or positively correlated. Using a two-stage game the influence of spillovers and product substitution is investigated. It is shown that under Cournot competition, the sign of the R&D reaction function depends on four types of environments in terms of the level of product substitution and of spillovers. We then test the prediction of the model on the world’s largest manufacturing corporations. We assume that firms make oblivious R&D investments based on the R&D decision of the average rival company. We then develop a dynamic panel data model that accounts for the endogeneity of the decision of the mean rival firms. Results corroborate the validity of the theoretical model.

in Innovation, Industrial Dynamics and Structural Transformation Publié en 2007
FONTANA Roberto
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We provide empirical evidence on market positioning by firms, in terms of market niche, distance from technological frontier and dispersion. We focus on the switch industry, a sub-market of the Local Area Network industry, in the nineties. Market positioning is a function of the type of firms (incumbents versus entrants), market size and contestability as well as firm competencies. We find that incumbents specialize in high-end segments and disperse their product in a larger spectrum of the market. Instead, entrants focus on specific market niches. Market size, market contestability and firm competencies are also important determinants of product location.

in Applied Evolutionary Economics and the Knowledge-based Economy Publié en 2006
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We investigate the relationship between product innovation and firm survival for a sample of 121 firms in a high-tech industry. We find that location near the technological frontier is an important determinant of firm survival. Firms located near the frontier are also more likely to be acquired than to exit by failure if they cannot survive. This suggests that product location in the technology space acts as a signal of firm quality. Possessing a substantial stock of intangible capital, on the other hand, determines neither exit via failure nor exit via acquisition, although it increases the probability of surviving.

in International Journal of Technology Management Publié en 1999
NESTA Lionel
MANGEMATIN Vincent
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Economists emphasise the crucial role of absorptive capacity with regard to external knowledge. In this respect, the firm's knowledge base determines its ability to recognise, assimilate and exploit externalities. Assuming that a firm's absorptive capacity also depends upon the characteristics of external knowledge, this paper analyses the relationship between three basic concepts empirically defined: the fundamental or applied nature of knowledge, the tacit or codified form of knowledge and the absorptive capacity of the firm. Based on an empirical analysis of R&D contracts between France's largest research institute and industrial firms, we show that a low absorptive capacity inhibits cooperation in R&D. The collaboration concerns mostly applied fields and needs informal interactions to support transfers (such as telephone calls, informal interviews and meetings). A high absorptive capacity extends the assimilation to all kinds of knowledge (applied, fundamental) through all types of vehicles (PhD students, scientific staff, technical devices). Altogether, absorption mechanisms seem to diversify as the firm's absorption capacity increases.

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