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  • COUSTEAUX Anne-Sophie (10)
  • DE SAINT POL Thibaut (9)
  • LE HAY Viviane (7)
  • CHANVRIL Flora (7)
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  • Communication non publiée (38)
  • Article (12)
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The Réseau Quetelet, French data archives for social science, has developed a Social Science Question Database and Research Tools that allows users to search for questions (question texts, answer texts, variable labels) across datasets, compare results, and save them. The analysis can be extended to the roots of words or to include stop words. Information on each question include: questions text, categories of answer, location of the variable in the dataset, link to the variables before and after, instructions given to interviewers, text before and after the question, universe of the question, links to questionnaires. Users can store questions and export them (csv or xls). The question database is based on DDI (version 2) and the research module on Apache Solr.// The paper was presented at the CESSDA Expert Seminar, Université de Lausanne, 20 octobre 2011 / 4th conference of the European Survey Research Association, Lausanne, Suisse, 18-22 juillet 2011 / 37th conference of IASSIST, Vancouver, Canada, 30 mai-3 juin 2011 / Conférence NTTS (New Techniques and Technologies for Statistics) organisée par Eurostat, Bruxelles, Belgique, 22-24 février 2011 / Journée du Réseau Quetelet sur les bases de questions, Sciences Po, Paris, 28 janvier 2011

Présentation des outils et services du Centre de données socio-politiques à l'occasion du 10e congrès de l’Association Française de Science Politique (Grenoble, 7-9 septembre 2009).

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Les avancées récentes des sciences sociales doivent beaucoup aux grands programmes et enquêtes statistiques qui permettent de comparer dans différents pays aussi bien l'impact des choix effectués en matière de politiques publiques que les évolutions des sociétés. Ces données sont maintenant facilement accessibles grâce à des centres d'archivage spécialisés qui les mettent gratuitement à la disposition des étudiants et des chercheurs. Mais jusqu'ici sociologues et politistes français étaient, dans l'ensemble, peu familiers de ces enquêtes et des réseaux d'archives. Cet ouvrage se veut un manuel d'initiation aux enquêtes comparatives et au partage des données internationales. Dans cet objectif de pédagogie, et dans une approche exempte de jargon statistique, les auteurs dressent ici un bilan des acquis essentiels de ces enquêtes dans les domaines des comportements électoraux, de la religion et des valeurs, des modes de vie, des pratiques culturelles, de la mobilité sociale, des comportements démographiques. A cela s'ajoute un guide méthodologique des techniques d'échantillonnage, des principales difficultés et potentialités de la comparaison internationale, des apports de l'analyse longitudinale (panels), de l'organisation des réseaux d'archives, et des principes éthiques qui assurent la protection des données individuelles. (Résumé éditeur)

Using couples' time‐diary data from two French time‐use surveys (1986, 1999), this article explores the extent to which off‐scheduling within dual‐earner couples is an unequal and negative externality for family time. An empirical typology of family workdays is built using a variant of optimal matching, and three kinds of family time are taken into account: conjugal time, father‐ and mother‐child time, and parents‐child time. The results indicate that off‐scheduling is an unintentional by‐product of employers’ economic interests and that, since it reduces conjugal and parents‐child time but fails to foster temporal complementarity between parents, it is a negative factor for family solidarity.

In this paper, I reflect on the conditions required to apply optimal matching (OM) to time-use data and I propose a parameterization adapted to the analysis of the timing of daily life. OM allows time use analysts to build typologies of sequences of daily life, hence to take into account simultaneously the duration and the timing of activities. OM is a family of distance concepts originating in information and coding theory where it is known under various names among which Hamming or Levenshtein distance. Although it was imported into social sciences from biology, its success in this field is not due to any resemblance sequence transformation operations may share with gene mutations but is on the contrary the result of parameters set in accordance with biological concepts and materials. Consequently, applying OM to time use data requires a cost system able to uncover sub-rhythms from sequences of daily events. I propose to use only substitution operations and to derive their costs from the series of transition matrices describing daily collective rhythms. A Stata plug-in freely available on the Internet implements this methods and is briefly introduced. This variant of OM is applied to the question of the scheduling of work using the 1985-86 and 1998-99 French time-use surveys: twelve types of workdays are uncovered. Aggregate and individual chronograms are used to interpret and assess the quality of the typology.

in Les Grands dossiers des sciences humaines Publié en 2010
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23 % des couples ont aujourd’hui des journées de travail fortement désynchronisées. Les incidences sur la vie de famille amènent le sociologue Laurent Lesnard à parler de familles désarticulées.

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This article addresses the question of the effects of cost setting on the kind of temporal patterns optimal matching (OM) can uncover when applied to social science data. It is argued that the balance between indel (insertion and deletion) and substitution costs determines what kind of socio-temporal pattern can be brought to light. Insertion and deletion operations favor identically coded states irrespective of their locations whereas substitutions focus on contemporaneous similarities. The lower the ratio of substitution to indel costs, the closer OM is to the Hamming distance where only substitutions are used. The higher this ratio, the closer OM is to the Levenshtein II distance, which amounts to finding the longest common subsequence. When the timing of sequences is crucial, substitutions should be favored over indels and their costs should be carefully fixed. Ideally, substitution costs should vary with time to better take into account the timing of the sequences studied. As indels warp time, hence the timing of sequences, it is suggested to use only substitution operations with time-dependent costs inversely proportional to transition frequencies whenever the timing of sequences is central. This OM variant, coined dynamic Hamming matching, is applied to the question of the scheduling of paid work where timing is critical (1985 and 1999 French time use surveys, N = 7,908) along with three classical OM variants (Hamming and Levenshtein I and II). As expected, the two Hamming dissimilarity measures fare better to identify patterns of workday schedules, as measured by entropy, than the two Levenshtein ones.

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