Working paper
Tax cuts or social investment? Evaluating the opportunity cost of the French employment strategy
LIEPP Working Paper
CARBONNIER Clément - Université de Cergy Pontoise (Auteur)
PALIER Bruno - Centre d'études européennes et de politique comparée (Auteur)
ZEMMOUR Michaël - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques (Auteur)
Paris : Laboratory for Interdisciplinary Evaluation of Public Policies
LIEPP Working Paper : 31
Mots clés
tax, expenditure, employment policies, social policies
Tax expenditures are widely used by French governments as employment and social policies. Such programmes together amounted to more than 1.3 points of GDP in 2011. Thanks to a systematic review of academic policy evaluations, we assess the efficiency of the different parts of such policies, showing that at least €6 billion is used for policies whose cost is greater than €62,500 per year and job created, and €0.5 billion for policies whose cost is greater than €160,000 per year and job created. We examine the replacement of these tax expenditures by direct public funding for (publicly or pri-vately delivered) “quality” jobs addressing specific social needs. We discuss the conditions under which at least comparable employment performances could be achieved (factoring in the crowding out of privately funded jobs and the properties of created jobs in terms of the service provided or the characteristics of suppliers and consum-ers) as well as any positive economic and social externalities.