Partie ou chapitre de livre
French foreign policy: Make France great again?
Foreign policy change in Europe since 1991
127 - 153 p.
Foreign policy change, Defence policy, Official development assistance, International cooperation, France
This chapter analyzes foreign policy change in France since 1990, focusing in particular on defense policy, official development assistance and international cooperation. We argue that French foreign policy has mainly been characterized by three different types of change: adjustment changes, program changes and goal changes. Although the fundamental goals of French foreign policy evolved relatively little over the past thirty years, we show that France adapted its priorities and restructured its foreign policy tools following the end of the Cold War. We highlight that France developed a comprehensive approach to foreign policy, integrating various instruments and tools, and built up numerous strategic and defense partnerships. Our empirical analysis shows that some of these changes have been dramatic (such as the professionalization of the armed forces in 1996), while others have been incremental (e.g. the shift from formal, multilateral agreements to more informal and minilateral forms of cooperation). Such changes converge toward the ambition to make France great again in a context where new global actors do compete with the expected leadership of successive French executives.